Radiolunate arthrodesis: A procedure for stabilising and preserving mobility in the arthritic wrist.
We carried out arthrodesis of the radiolunate joint in 46 wrists (38 patients) for pain and ulnar translation of the carpus because of rheumatoid (42) or psoriatic arthritis (4). At follow-up, three patients had died and in three (1 bilateral) an additional midcarpal arthrodesis had been undertaken. The remaining 32 patients (39 wrists) were evaluated after a mean of five years. The clinical results were good with a mean visual analogue score of 8.3 for pain, 7.2 for hand function and 9 for overall satisfaction. Except for palmar flexion, mobility was equal to or better than before operation. Radiologically, there was deterioration of the midcarpal joint with an increase in the Larsen score from 1.8 to 2.7 (p < 0.001), some decrease in carpal height and recurrence of carpal translation. Radiolunate arthrodesis gives good clinical results at five years although there is some deterioration radiologically. (+info)
Kinematics of the wrist. Evidence for two types of movement.
We enrolled 34 normal volunteers to test the hypothesis that there were two types of movement of the wrist. On lateral radiographs two distinct patterns of movement emerged. Some volunteers showed extensive rotation of the lunate with a mean range of dorsiflexion of 65 degrees, while others had a mean range of 50 degrees. The extensive rotators were associated with a greater excursion of the centre of articulation of the wrist. It is suggested that dynamic external fixation of a fracture of the distal radius carries with it the risk of stretching the ligaments or causing volar displacement at the site of the fracture. (+info)
Kienbock's disease: conservative management versus radial shortening.
Avascular necrosis of the lunate, first described by Kienbock, can be treated either conservatively or by various surgical procedures. We compared the results of 18 conservatively treated patients, all of whom had stage-2 or stage-3 disease, with those of 15 who underwent a radial shortening procedure. We evaluated pain, range of movement, grip strength and functional disability, and determined the progression of the disease by assessing radiologically carpal height, the width and flattening of the lunate, the radioscaphoid angle, the pattern of the fracture and sclerosis and cysts. The mean follow-up was for 3.6 years (1.5 to 9). Patients treated by radial shortening had less pain and better grip strength than those managed conservatively. In some patients with stage-3 disease treated conservatively there was rapid deterioration to carpal collapse. Although radial shortening did not reverse or prevent carpal collapse, it slowed down the process in patients with stage-3 disease. We recommend a radial shortening procedure for patients with severe pain and radiological signs of progressive carpal collapse. (+info)
Treatment of isolated injuries of the lunotriquetral ligament. A comparison of arthrodesis, ligament reconstruction and ligament repair.
We studied 57 patients with isolated lunotriquetral injuries treated by arthrodesis, direct ligament repair, or ligament reconstruction. The outcomes were compared by using written questionnaires, the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, range of movement, strength, morbidity and rates of reoperation. Isolated lunotriquetral injury was confirmed by arthroscopy or arthrotomy. The mean age of the patients was 30.7 years (15.4 to 53.7) and the injuries were subacute or chronic in 98.2%. Eight patients underwent lunotriquetral reconstruction using a distally-based strip of the tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris, 27 had lunotriquetral repair and 22 had lunotriquetral arthrodesis. The mean follow-up was 9.5 years (2 to 22). The probability of remaining free from complications at five years was 68.6% for reconstruction, 13.5% for repair, and less than 1% for arthrodesis. Of the lunotriquetral arthrodeses, 40.9% developed nonunion and 22.7% developed ulnocarpal impaction. The probability of not requiring further surgery at five years was 68.6% for reconstruction, 23.3% for repair and 21.8% for arthrodesis. The DASH scores for each group were not significantly different. Objective improvements in strength and movement, subjective indicators of pain relief and satisfaction were significantly higher in the lunotriquetral repair and reconstruction groups than in those undergoing arthrodesis. (+info)
Rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid in Kienbock's disease is not a cause of scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) in the wrist.
We have examined whether the rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid which is seen in patients with advanced Kienbock's disease is associated with scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) wrist. We studied 16 patients (11 men, 5 women) who had stage-IV Kienbock's disease with chronic subluxation of the scaphoid. All had received conservative treatment. The mean period of affection with Kienbock's disease was 30 years (14 to 49). No wrist had SLAC. In eight patients, 24 years or more after the onset of the disease, the articular surface of the radius had been remodelled by the subluxed scaphoid with maintenance of the joint space. The wrists of six patients were considered to be excellent, nine good, and one fair according to the clinical criteria of Dornan. Our findings have shown that rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid in Kienbock's disease is not a cause of SLAC wrist and therefore that scaphotrapeziotrapezoid arthrodesis is not required for the management of these patients. (+info)
Biomechanical evaluation of ligamentous stabilizers of the scaphoid and lunate.
This study evaluated the effects of sectioning the scapholunate interosseous ligament, radioscaphocapitate ligament, and scaphotrapezial ligament on the kinematics of the scaphoid and lunate. Eight cadaver upper extremities were placed in a wrist joint simulator and moved in continuous cycles of flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation. Positional data of the scaphoid and lunate were obtained in the intact state, after the scapholunate ligament was cut; after the scapholunate and scaphotrapezial ligaments were cut; after the scapholunate, scaphotrapezial, and radioscaphocapitate ligaments were cut; and after all 3 ligaments were cut and the specimen was placed through an additional 1,000 cycles of flexion-extension. Cutting the scapholunate ligament caused changes in scaphoid and lunate motion during flexion-extension, but not radial-ulnar deviation. Additional sectioning of the scaphotrapezial ligament followed by the radioscaphocapitate ligament caused further kinematic changes in these carpal bones. One thousand cycles of motion after all 3 ligaments were sectioned caused additional kinematic changes in the scaphoid and lunate. The scapholunate ligament appears to be the primary stabilizer between the scaphoid and lunate. The radioscaphocapitate and scaphotrapezial ligaments are secondary restraints. Repetitive cyclic motion after ligament sectioning appears to have additional deleterious effects on carpal kinematics. (+info)
Capitate transposition to replace necrotic lunate bone with a pedicle for Kienbock's disease: review of 30 cases.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical application of capitate transposition with a pedicle in 30 cases of Kienbock's disease. METHODS: The external diameter and curvature of the capitate head and proximal facet of the lunate were observed and measured in 100 specimens. The vascularity of the capitate was also investigated. Capitate transposition with a vascular pedicle was designed to treat 30 patients with advanced Kienbock's disease who were followed up for 2 to 16 years and then analyzed according to Evans's scoring system. RESULTS: Aseptic necrosis did not occur in the transposed capitate because the pedicle fascia including the dorsal branch of the anterior interosseous artery ensured the vascularity of proximal two thirds of the capitate. The transposed capitate reestablished a relatively pain-free radiocarpal joint. Follow-up results showed that grip strength and motion arc were up to 70% of contralateral side. CONCLUSIONS: Capitate transposition with a pedicle is a reliable treatment method for advanced Kienbock's disease, with favorable prognosis for at least five years postoperatively. (+info)
Lunate migration following Darrach's procedure: a case report.
We report a case of a 28-year-old female patient who underwent Darrach's procedure to her dominant right wrist affected by rheumatoid disease. She developed severe pain in the wrist 4 weeks postoperatively. Collapse of the scaphoid and proximal migration of the lunate was noted. Total wrist arthrodesis using the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Osteosynthesefragen wrist arthrodesis plate was performed, which alleviated the pain. Darrach's procedure is described for conditions causing derangement of the distal radio-ulnar joint, the classical inflammatory cause being rheumatoid arthritis. It is however a potentially destabilising procedure. The extreme complication encountered in this case highlights the risk of Darrach's procedure if pre-existing ligamentous instability is present. (+info)