Rifampicin-resistant bacteriophage PBS2 infection and RNA polymerase in Bacillus subtilis.
Bacteriophage PBS2 replication is unaffected by rifampicin and other rifamycin derivatives, which are potent inhibitors of Bacillus subtilis RNA synthesis. Extracts of gently-lysed infected cells contain a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity which is specific for uracil-containing PBS2 DNA. The PBS2-induced RNA polymerase is insensitive to rifamycin derivatives which inhibit the host's RNA polymerase. (+info)
Nucleolar necklaces in chick embryo fibroblast cells. II. Microscope observations of the effect of adenosine analogues on nucleolar necklace formation.
The round nucleoli of chick embryo fibroblast cells, when exposed to adenosine (2 mM)or to a number of adenosine analogues, lose material and unravel over a period of several hours to become beaded strands, 20 mu M in length, termed nucleolar necklaces (NN). Light microscope observations on this process are described. Biochemical experiments have revealed that most of these analogues interfere with both messenger RNA synthesis and ribosome synthesis, causing extensive degradation of the preribosome species containing 32S RNA although most of the preribosomes containing 18S RNA survive. We suggest that it is the depletion from the nucleolus of the adhesive 32S and 28S RNA preribosomes which allows the remaining nucleolar apparatus to spread apart into the NN configuration. Also required for the maintenance of the NN structure is the synthesis of some ribosomal RNA (rRNA) possibly present as rRNA "feathers" on the DNA. The addition of inhibitors of rRNA synthesis such as actinomycin D to the NN-containing cells causes loss of rRNA. Then a contraction and collapse of the NN structure into small dense spheres is observed. (+info)
Effect of lucanthone (miracil D) on transcription of ribosomal RNA genes from Tetrahymena in vivo and in vitro.
Addition of lucanthone (1-5 mug/ml) to cultures of Tetrahymena results in a preferential inhibition of the synthesis of ribosomal RNA. Transcriptional studies with isolated nucleoli from Tetrahymena demonstrate that the endogenous RNA polymerases of the r-chromatin (chromatin form of rDNA) do not recognize the normal termination and move into the spacer region distal to the terminator in the presence of lucanthone. This is shown by hybridization of the transcript synthesized in the presence of the drug to restriction fragments of rDNA. Lucanthone seems specific in its action on termination as it does not inhibit the elongation process on the chromatin. Among various DNA-binding drugs tested only lucanthone and proflavine are found to cause repression of the termination. The data obtained suggest that the reduced synthesis of rRNA in lucanthone-treated eukaryotic cells is due to lack of reinitiating RNA polymerases possibly caused by improper termination. (+info)
Lucanthone hydrochloride; a review.
THIS REVIEW OF THE PUBLISHED WORK ON THE TREATMENT OF BILHARZIASIS WITH LUCANTHONE HYDROCHLORIDE DRAWS ATTENTION TO THE INCONCLUSIVE NATURE OF MANY OF THE TRIALS CARRIED OUT SO FAR: either the dosage was inadequate or the patients were not followed up for a sufficient length of time. The author stresses the importance of obtaining a high concentration of lucanthone in the body fluids. He suggests that better results might be obtained if the total dose were given in two days or even as a single, massive dose. This method might also reduce the side effects, which do not appear, as a rule, until the second or third day. (+info)
Inhibition of the human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) repair activity and sensitization of breast cancer cells to DNA alkylating agents with lucanthone.
Cells repair DNA damage via four main mechanisms, however, damage induced by alkylators and oxidative damage is predominantly repaired by the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway. The AP endonuclease, APE1, is one of the main enzymes in the BER pathway. It is abundant in human cells and accounts for nearly all of the abasic site cleavage activity observed in cellular extracts. APE1 expression is elevated in a variety of cancers and a high APE1 expression has been associated with poor outcome to chemoradiotherapy. The small molecule lucanthone has been shown to enhance the killing ability of ionizing radiation in cells and preliminary evidence suggests that lucanthone may inhibit AP endonuclease. Given the role APE1 plays in repairing oxidative and ionizing radiation DNA damage, the reports of lucanthone as an ionizing radiation enhancer and the potential use of lucanthone as an AP endonuclease inhibitor, we examined whether lucanthone could inhibit APE1 endonuclease activity. We report that lucanthone inhibits the repair activity of APE1, but not its redox function or exonuclease activity on mismatched nucleotides. Lucanthone also appears to inhibit exonuclease III family members (APE1 and ExoIII), but not endonuclease IV AP endonucleases, nor bifunctional glycosylase/lyases such as endonuclease VIII or formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg). Furthermore, the addition of lucanthone inhibits APE1 repair activity from cellular extracts and enhances the cell killing effect of the laboratory alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the clinically relevant agent temozolomide (TMZ). Given these initial findings, it would be of interest to further develop lucanthone as an APE1 inhibitor through the use of structure-function studies as a means of enhancing the sensitization of tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. (+info)
Clonogenicity of human leukemic cells protected from cell-lethal agents by heat shock protein 70.
Pretreatment of human leukemia THP-1 cells with heat shock protein Hsp70 (Hsp70) protected them from the cell-lethal effects of the topoisomerase II inhibitor, lucanthone and from ionizing radiation. Cell viability was scored in clonogenic assays of single cells grown in liquid medium containing 0.5% methyl cellulose. Colonies were observed and rapidly scored after staining with the tetrazolium salt, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. The frequency of abasic sites in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of THP-1 cells was reduced when these cells were treated with Hsp70. Hsp70 is presumed to have protected the cells by promoting repair of cell DNA, in agreement with previous studies that showed that Hsp70 enhanced base excision repair by purified enzymes. The shoulders of radiation dose-response curves were enhanced by pretreatment of cells with Hsp70 and, importantly, were reduced when cells were transfected with ribonucleic acid designed to silence Hsp70. Hsp70 influenced repair of sublethal damage after radiation. (+info)
Radiation resistance in glioma cells determined by DNA damage repair activity of Ape1/Ref-1.
Since radiation therapy remains a primary treatment modality for gliomas, the radioresistance of glioma cells and targets to modify their radiation tolerance are of significant interest. Human apurinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1, Ref-1, APEX, HAP1, AP endo) is a multifunctional protein involved in base excision repair of DNA and a redox-dependent transcriptional co-activator. This study investigated whether there is a direct relationship between Ape1 and radioresistance in glioma cells, employing the human U87 and U251 cell lines. U87 is intrinsically more radioresistant than U251, which is partly attributable to more cycling U251 cells found in G2/M, the most radiosensitive cell stage, while more U87 cells are found in S and G1, the more radioresistant cell stages. But observed radioresistance is also related to Ape1 activity. U87 has higher levels of Ape1 than does U251, as assessed by Western blot and enzyme activity assays (approximately 1.5-2 fold higher in cycling cells, and approximately 10 fold higher at G2/M). A direct relationship was seen in cells transfected with CMV-Ape1 constructs; there was a dose-dependent relationship between increasing Ape1 overexpression and increasing radioresistance. Conversely, knock down by siRNA or by pharmacological down regulation of Ape1 resulted in decreased radioresistance. The inhibitors lucanthone and CRT004876 were employed, the former a thioxanthene previously under clinical evaluation as a radiosensitizer for brain tumors and the latter a more specific Ape1 inhibitor. These data suggest that Ape1 may be a useful target for modifying radiation tolerance. (+info)
Lucanthone is a novel inhibitor of autophagy that induces cathepsin D-mediated apoptosis.