Frequent use of lubricants for anal sex among men who have sex with men: the HIV prevention potential of a microbicidal gel.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed frequency of rectal lubricant use, opinions about rectal microbicidal gels, and willingness to participate in acceptability trials of rectal microbicides among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Latino MSM (N = 307) living in New York City were surveyed from October 1995 through November 1996. Eleven Latino MSM participated in a focus group. RESULTS: Among those having anal sex during the prior year, 93% used lubricants (59% always and 74% in at least 80% of sexual encounters) regardless of condom use. Of the 29 men who practiced anal sed but did not use condoms, 90% used lubricants with similar frequency. Of those using lubricants, 94% used at least 1 teaspoon per occasion. A transparent product, free of smell and taste, was favored. Of the MSM in the sample, 92% said that they would use a lubricant with an anti-HIV microbicidal agent, and 87% expressed interest in participating in an acceptability trial. Product and dispenser preferences also were discussed. CONCLUSIONS: A rectal lubricant with microbicidal properties appears acceptable and desirable to Latino men who have anal sex with other men. (+info)
Femoral prosthetic heads and their significance in polyethylene wear.
We used scanning electron microscopy to perform an ultrastructural analysis and two optical interferometric profilers to measure roughness on 40 prosthetic femoral heads. We expressed roughness as Ra (roughness average) value and Rsk (roughness skewness) value. Our results show that in order to obtain an ideal surface finish a low or not very high Ra value and a negative Rsk value are needed. The presence of depressions or holes (rather than scratches) with smooth (rather than sharp) edges seems to improve the lubrication and wettability properties. (+info)
Review article: the therapy of constipation.
Constipation is a common symptom that may be idiopathic or due to various identifiable disease processes. Laxatives are agents that add bulk to intestinal contents, that retain water within the bowel lumen by virtue of osmotic effects, or that stimulate intestinal secretion or motility, thereby increasing the frequency and ease of defecation. Drugs which improve constipation by stimulating gastrointestinal motility by direct actions on the enteric nervous system are under development. Other modalities used to treat constipation include biofeedback and surgery. Laxatives and lavage solutions are also used for colon preparation and evacuation of the bowels after toxic ingestions. (+info)
Gel lubrication of the tracheal tube cuff reduces pulmonary aspiration.
BACKGROUND: Leakage of fluid occurs along the longitudinal folds within the wall of an inflated high-volume, low-pressure cuff. Theoretically, lubrication of the cuff with a water-soluble gel might prevent aspiration by plugging the channels in the cuff wall. Pulmonary aspiration during anesthesia has been linked with postoperative pneumonia and during critical illness causes ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHODS: Lubricated cuffs were compared with nonlubricated cuffs for leakage of dye placed in the subglottic space to the tracheobronchial tree in a benchtop model (n = 5) and in a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial of anesthetized patients (n = 36). The duration of the efficacy of the lubricant was determined in a prospective open observational study of critically ill patients with tracheostomies (n = 9). Dye was detected clinically by dye coloration of secretions during tracheal suctioning. RESULTS: In the benchtop model the incidence of leakage was 0% in the lubrication group and 100% in the nonlubrication group (P < 0.01). Dye leakage in anesthetized patients was 11% in the lubrication group and 83% in the nonlubrication group (P < 0.0001). In the critically ill patients with lubricated cuffed tracheostomy tubes, leakage first occurred after a median period of 48 h (range, 24-120 h). CONCLUSIONS: Cuff lubrication with a water-soluble gel reduces pulmonary aspiration in anesthetized patients. In the critically ill patient with a tracheostomy the protective effect is lost after 24-120 h. (+info)
Comparative evaluation of tableting compression behaviors by methods of internal and external lubricant addition: inhibition of enzymatic activity of trypsin preparation by using external lubricant addition during the tableting compression process.
This study evaluated tableting compression by using internal and external lubricant addition. The effect of lubricant addition on the enzymatic activity of trypsin, which was used as a model drug during the tableting compression process, was also investigated. The powder mixture (2% crystalline trypsin, 58% crystalline lactose, and 40% microcrystalline cellulose) was kneaded with 5% hydroxypropyl cellulose aqueous solution and then granulated using an extruding granulator equipped with a 0.5-mm mesh screen at 20 rpm. After drying, the sample granules were passed through a 10-mesh screen (1680 microm). A 200-mg sample was compressed by using 8-mm punches and dies at 49, 98, 196, or 388 MPa (Mega Pascal) at a speed of 25 mm/min. The external lubricant compression was performed using granules without lubricant in the punches and dies. The granules were already dry coated by the lubricant. In contrast, the internal lubricant compression was performed using sample granules (without dry coating) containing 0.5% lubricant. At 98 MPa, for example, the compression level using the external lubricant addition method was about 13% higher than that for internal addition. The significantly higher compressing energy was also observed at other MPas. By comparison, the friction energy for the external addition method calculated based on upper and lower compression forces was only slightly larger. The hardness of tablets prepared using the internal addition method was 34% to 48% lower than that for the external addition method. The total pore volume of the tablet prepared using the external addition method was significantly higher. The maximum ejection pressure using the no-addition method (ie, the tablet was prepared using neither dry-coated granules nor added lubricant) was significantly higher than that of other addition methods. The order was as follows: no addition, external addition, and then internal addition. The ejection energy (EE) for internal addition was the lowest; for no addition, EE was the highest. In the dissolution test, the tablets obtained using external addition immediately disintegrated and showed faster drug release than those prepared using internal addition. This result occurred because the water penetration rate of the tablet using the external addition was much higher. The trypsin activity in tablets prepared using the external addition method was significantly higher than that produced using the internal addition method at the same pressure. All these results suggest that the external addition method might produce a fast-dissolution tablet. Because the drug will be compressed using low pressure only, an unstable bulk drug may be tableted without losing potency. (+info)
Additives in plastics.
The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. (+info)
Female condom reuse in Lusaka, Zambia: evidence from 12 cases.
Female condom reuse could address one of the principal barriers to use, namely, cost; however, the safety of reuse has not been established. Recent reports have provided information related to reuse safety under carefully specified research study conditions. Still, little is known about reuse outside a research study context, and there are outstanding questions related to feasibility of reuse among general populations. This study reports on naturally occurring reuse from a small, purposive sample of self-identified women who, prior to the study, had reused the female condom of their own volition without reuse instruction. Three types of reuse were identified. Most women attempted to clean devices between removal and reinsertion. A number of agents, including water (only), bath soap, laundry detergent, Dettol, and beer were used for cleaning. A number of agents were used for relubrication, including Reality((R)) lubricant, various kinds of cooking oil, and Vaseline((TM)). Perception of the strength and integrity of female condoms making them suitable for reuse were influenced by both provider advice and product packaging. Most participants reported no problems with reuse. Some women, faced with barriers to single use of a female condom or use of an acceptable alternative, will resort to reuse and rely on their own "common sense" notions to implement reuse. Providers and purveyors have opportunities to shape responses to reuse for the better, and the research community is obligated to provide a solid scientific base regarding reuse safety. (+info)
Some new evidence on human joint lubrication.
Theoretical consideration has been given to the use of pendulum machines which are used to examine the frictional properties of human joints by incorporating them as fulcra. As a result, a new type of pendulum machine has been built which incorporates the facility to apply sudden loads to the joint on starting the swinging motion, and also the ability to measure directly the frictional torque experienced by the joint. The results obtained from natural hip joints indicate the presence of squeeze film lubrication under conditions of sudden loading of a joint. In addition, a self-generated fluid film process was observed at low loads while at higher loads boundary lubrication appeared to be important. These results have been used to describe the lubrication regimens occurring in a normal activity such as walking. A single experiment carried out on a hip from a patient suffering from severe rheumatoid arthritis has also been reported and the frictional resistance was seen to be increased fifteenfold compared to a normal hip. (+info)