Does gel affect cytology or comfort in the screening papanicolaou smear?
PURPOSE: Current medical training recommends obtaining cervical cytological specimens without the use of lubricating gel. The purpose of this study was to determine whether water-soluble lubricant gel affects cytologic outcomes in the screening Papanicolaou smear and patient comfort during vaginal speculum examination. METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled trial performed at David Grant US Air Force Medical Center (Travis Air Force Base, CA). Participants were female patients at least 18 years old presenting for an annual Papanicolaou smear. Each patient, blinded to group assignment, consented to two consecutive Papanicolaou smears. The first Papanicolaou smear was performed without gel in all subjects as part of the "standard of care." Thirty control patients underwent a second examination with no gel, and 40 other patients had the second examination with gel. All patients rated the discomfort of each Papanicolaou smear on a numerical pain scale. Main outcome measures were cytologic discrepancies on standard glass slide samples and comfort differences regarding the use of gel lubrication. Fisher's exact test was used to interpret the effect of gel on cytology results. Student's t test was performed to compare the discomfort ratings for the second Papanicolaou smear in the GEL vs. the NO GEL groups. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the number of inadequate Papanicolaou smears (P = .50) nor in the discomfort level ratings in the GEL vs. the NO GEL groups (P = .69). CONCLUSION: Speculum gel lubrication does not affect cervical cytology during the traditional Papanicolaou smear, nor does it provide significant alteration of patient discomfort. (+info)
Acceptability of microbicidal surrogates among Zambian women.
OBJECTIVES AND GOAL: This study assessed the acceptability after the use of vaginal lubricants as surrogates for microbicides among women in Zambia and the role of cultural factors as facilitators or impediments to their potential use for HIV risk reduction within the Zambian context. STUDY DESIGN: HIV seronegative women (N = 301) recruited from the University Teaching Hospital HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center were randomized into group, individual, or enhanced usual care arms. Participants attended pre- and post-HIV test counseling, followed by a 3-session, 2-hour once-a-month intervention introducing them to vaginal lubricants (2 types of gels, suppositories) in addition to male and female condoms. Supplies were offered at months 4 and 5; assessments were at baseline, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: At baseline, the majority of women reported minimal previous exposure to vaginal products and low levels of condom use. Participants' use of products was influenced by product characteristics and perceived partner acceptability; the majority of participants preferred drier products and suppository delivery systems. The basis for decisions regarding vaginal product acceptability changed over time and followed product exposure, and was greatly influenced by perceptions of partner acceptability. CONCLUSION: Results illustrate the influence of male partners on Zambian seronegative women's preferences for microbicidal products, and the change in preferred characteristics over time. (+info)
Lubrication potential of magnesium stearate studied on instrumented rotary tablet press.
Association between use of synthetic metalworking fluid and risk of developing rhinitis-related symptoms in an automotive ring manufacturing plant.
The main objective of this study was to determine the association between synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF) and rhinitis-related symptoms. At a plant manufacturing piston rings for automobiles, we interviewed grinders (19) and manufacturing workers (142) in operations where synthetic or semisynthetic MWF is handled, and administrative office workers (44) regarding the principal symptoms of rhinitis (nasal stuffiness, runny nose, anosmia, nasal itchiness, rhinorrhea, headache, epistaxis, and post-nasal drip). In addition, we assessed the current exposure of workers handling MWF to MWF aerosols, fungi, and endotoxins. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between MWF surrogates indicative of MWF exposure and each rhinitis-related nasal symptom. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for sex, age, smoking habit, and duration of employment. Among grinders handling synthetic MWF, the frequency of complaints of the dominant symptoms was 66.7% for nasal stuffiness, 77.8% for anosmia, 77.8% for runny nose, and 50.0% for headache. These rates are quite high even allowing for the common occurrence of rhinitis in the general population. Twenty eight of 34 grinding and manufacturing workers (82.4%) sampled were exposed to MWF mist above the threshold limit of 0.2 mg/m(3) listed as a notice of intended change by the American Conference for Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). The percentage of workers exposed to MWF mist >0.5 mg/m(3) was 17.6%. Most workers were exposed to fungi levels >103 CFU/m(3). All exposures to endotoxins were <50 EU/m(3). Logistic regression analysis found that use of synthetic MWF was significantly associated with excess risk of nasal stuffiness (OR 3.5), nasal itchiness (OR 2.0), and runny nose (OR 2.1). The use of semi-synthetic MWF had little or no impact on the risk of developing rhinitis-related nasal symptoms. Grinding workers handling synthetic MWF had an increased risk of nasal stuffiness (OR 7.9), anosmia (OR 23.2), nasal itchiness (OR 8.3), runny nose (OR 20.4), post nasal drip (OR 18.4), and headache (OR 7.4) compared to administrative workers. Synthetic MWF may play an important role in the development of the dominant symptoms of rhinitis. Further study is needed to establish the risk of rhinitis or rhinitis-related symptoms according to MWF type. (+info)
The effect of hyaluronidase, phospholipase, lipid solvent and trypsin on the lubrication of canine flexor digitorum profundus tendon.
Intra-articular use of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of disability in the elderly. The changes in the lubricating properties of synovial fluid lead to significant pain and loss of function. More than ten years have passed from the first studies. Up till now many authors have supported intra-articular hyaluronan (HA) therapy as not only a symptom-modifying therapy but also a treatment which may significantly decrease the rate of deterioration of joint structure. In this review we report data relative to knee and hip treatment. The ongoing studies continue to further our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that likely underlie the therapeutic benefits of this treatment but, despite recent progress, many unresolved issues require further study. Large scale double blind controlled studies must be carried out to confirm these promising data and produce meaningful guidelines. (+info)