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(1/258) Effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on muscle sympathetic activity and its reflex control in human heart failure.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine if atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) exerts a relative inhibitory effect on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest and during nonhypotensive lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in heart failure, as in healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen men (age 39+/-2 years [mean+/-SE]) with dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction 18+/-3%) received intravenous ANP (50 microgram bolus, then 50 ng. kg-1. min-1) and nitroglycerin (NTG, 8 mg/min) as a hemodynamic control. During each infusion MSNA, blood pressure (BP), central venous pressure (CVP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded before and during LBNP at -6 and -12 mm Hg. NTG and ANP caused similar and significant reductions in CVP and diastolic BP, but resting MSNA did not increase with either infusion. LBNP at -6 mm Hg lowered CVP (P<0.05), whereas LBNP at -12 mm Hg caused significant reductions in CVP, systolic BP, and diastolic BP. These effects of nonhypotensive and hypotensive LBNP on CVP and BP were similar during ANP and NTG infusions, yet MSNA was lower both before and with LBNP during ANP (P<0.02). Nonhypotensive LBNP increased MSNA during NTG (+133+/-68 Units; P<0.001) but not during ANP infusion (+24+/-23 Units; P=NS). CONCLUSIONS: These observations are consistent with the concept that ANP exerts a sympathoinhibitory action in heart failure. This is most evident in response to reductions in atrial pressures that do not affect systemic BP.  (+info)

(2/258) Mechanisms of inhibition of vasopressin release during moderate antiorthostatic posture change in humans.

The hypothesis was tested that the carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused by a posture change from upright seated with legs horizontal (Seat) to supine (Sup) participates in the suppression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. Ten healthy males underwent this posture change for 30 min without or with simultaneous application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) adjusted to maintain left atrial diameter (LAD) at the Seat level. Throughout Sup, mean arterial pressure and heart rate decreased from 98 +/- 2 to 91 +/- 2 mmHg and from 63 +/- 2 to 55 +/- 2 beats/min (P < 0.05), respectively, whereas the corresponding decreases during Sup + LBNP were attenuated and of shorter duration (98 +/- 2 to 93 +/- 2 mmHg and 62 +/- 2 to 58 +/- 3 beats/min, P < 0.05). During Sup, LAD increased from 30 +/- 1 to 33 +/- 1 mm, and arterial pulse pressure (PP) increased from 40 +/- 2 to 47 +/- 2 mmHg, whereas plasma AVP decreased from 0.9 +/- 0.2 to 0.5 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (P < 0.05), and plasma norepinephrine (NE) decreased from 176 +/- 20 to 125 +/- 16 pg/ml (P < 0.05). During Sup + LBNP, there were no changes in LAD, PP, plasma AVP, or NE. In conclusion, vasopressin secretion is suppressed during an antiorthostatic posture change, which increases carotid sinus pressure, PP, and LAD. The suppression is absent when PP and LAD are prevented from increasing and is thus critically dependent on at least one of these stimuli.  (+info)

(3/258) Flow ratios to express results obtained with the human in vivo 'perfused forearm technique'.

AIMS: To determine the accuracy of forearm blood flow (FBF) ratio (flow in infused arm/flow in control arm) to detect unilateral increases in forearm blood flow. METHODS: In nine healthy male volunteers, we measured the effect of infusion of saline into the brachial artery at a rate of 2 ml/100 ml forearm min-1 on FBF ratio during control, mental arithmetic (MAR) and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at -40 mmHg. RESULTS: Saline infusion increased FBF ratio from baseline by 115.9+/-17.4, 82.0+/-19.0 and 159.6+/-53.3% for control, MAR and LBNP, respectively (P<0.05 for MAR vs control). CONCLUSIONS: FBF ratio may underestimate unilateral increases in forearm blood flow during simultaneous mental arousal.  (+info)

(4/258) Cardiovascular response to acute hypovolemia in relation to age. Implications for orthostasis and hemorrhage.

Venous compliance in the legs of aging man has been found to be reduced with decreased blood pooling (capacitance response) in dependent regions, and this might lead to misinterpretations of age-related changes in baroreceptor function during orthostasis. The hemodynamic response to hypovolemic circulatory stress was studied with the aid of lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) of 60 cmH(2)O in 33 healthy men [18 young (mean age 22 yr) and 15 old (mean age 65 yr)]. Volumetric technique was used in the study of capacitance responses in the calf and arm as well as transcapillary fluid absorption in the arm. LBNP led to smaller increase in heart rate (P < 0.001) and peripheral resistance (P < 0.01) and reduced transcapillary fluid absorption in the arm (P < 0.05) in old subjects. However, blood pooling in the calf was reduced in old subjects (1.66 +/- 0.10 vs. 2.17 +/- 0.13 ml/100 ml tissue; P < 0. 01). Accordingly, during similar blood pooling in the calf (LBNP 80 cmH(2)O in old subjects), no changes in cardiovascular reflex responses with age were found. The capacitance response in the arm (mobilization of peripheral blood to the central circulation) was still reduced, however (0.67 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.37 +/- 0.11 ml/100 ml tissue; P < 0.01). Thus the reduced cardiovascular reflex response found in the elderly during orthostatic stress seems to be caused by a reduced capacitance response in the legs with age and a concomitant smaller central hypovolemic stimulus rather than a reduced efficiency of the reflex response. With similar hypovolemic circulatory stress, no changes in cardiovascular reflex responses are seen with age. The capacitance response in the arm (mobilization of peripheral blood toward the central circulation) is reduced, however, by approximately 50% in the elderly. This might seriously impede the possibility of survival of an acute blood loss.  (+info)

(5/258) Alcohol potentiates orthostatic hypotension : implications for alcohol-related syncope.

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption may be linked to syncopal events. The mechanisms by which alcohol may induce syncope are unknown. Impairment of the response to orthostatic stress may be involved. Using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, we tested the hypothesis that short-term alcohol intake causes orthostatic hypotension because of an impairment in the vasoconstrictor response to orthostatic stress. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of alcohol on blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) during orthostatic stress achieved by stepwise increases in lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) in 14 healthy young volunteers. During the placebo session, blood pressure did not change significantly during LBNP at -5, -10, and -20 mm Hg. A significant decrease in blood pressure was evident only at -40 mm Hg. In contrast, blood pressure fell significantly at all levels of LBNP during the alcohol session. Compared with placebo, alcohol potentiated the hypotensive responses to LBNP, particularly at -40 mm Hg, when the decrease in systolic blood pressure after alcohol intake (-14 mm Hg) was double that after placebo intake (-7 mm Hg). FVR increased with LBNP after placebo. However, after alcohol intake, FVR did not increase during LBNP despite the potentiated decrease in blood pressure. FVR responses during LBNP were reduced during alcohol compared with placebo consumption (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term alcohol consumption elicits hypotension during orthostatic stress because of impairment of vasoconstriction. These findings have implications for the understanding of the hemodynamic effects of alcohol and, in particular, for understanding syncopal events that occur in association with alcohol intake.  (+info)

(6/258) Effect of sleep restriction on orthostatic cardiovascular control in humans.

We hypothesized that sleep restriction (4 consecutive nights, 4 h sleep/night) attenuates orthostatic tolerance. The effect of sleep restriction on cardiovascular responses to simulated orthostasis, arterial baroreflex gain, and heart rate variability was evaluated in 10 healthy volunteers. Arterial baroreflex gain was determined from heart rate responses to nitroprusside-phenylephrine injections, and orthostatic tolerance was tested via lower body negative pressure (LBNP). A Finapres device measured finger arterial pressure. No difference in baroreflex function, heart rate variability, or LBNP tolerance was observed with sleep restriction (P > 0.3). Systolic pressure was greater at -60 mmHg LBNP after sleep restriction than before sleep restriction (110 +/- 6 and 124 +/- 3 mmHg before and after sleep restriction, respectively, P = 0.038), whereas heart rate decreased (108 +/- 8 and 99 +/- 8 beats/min before and after sleep restriction, respectively, P = 0.028). These data demonstrate that sleep restriction produces subtle changes in cardiovascular responses to simulated orthostasis, but these changes do not compromise orthostatic tolerance.  (+info)

(7/258) Reflex control of the cutaneous circulation during passive body core heating in humans.

The impact of body core heating on the interaction between the cutaneous and central circulation during blood pressure challenges was examined in eight adults. Subjects were exposed to -10 to -90 mmHg lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in thermoneutral conditions and -10 to -60 mmHg LBNP during heat stress. We measured forearm vascular conductance (FVC; ml. min(-1). 100 ml(-1). mmHg(-1)) by plethysmography; cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) by laser-Doppler techniques; and central venous pressure, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output by impedance cardiography. Heat stress increased FVC from 5.7 +/- 0.9 to 18.8 +/- 1.3 conductance units (CU) and CVC from 0.21 +/- 0.07 to 1.02 +/- 0.20 CU. The FVC-CVP relationship was linear over the entire range of LBNP and was shifted upward during heat stress with a slope increase from 0. 46 +/- 0.10 to 1.57 +/- 0.3 CU/mmHg CVP (P < 0.05). Resting CVP was lower during heat stress (6.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 7.7 +/- 0.6 mmHg; P < 0. 05) but fell to similar levels during LBNP as in normothermic conditions. Data analysis indicates an increased capacity, but not sensitivity, of peripheral baroreflex responses during heat stress. Laser-Doppler techniques detected thermoregulatory responses in the skin, but no significant change in CVC occurred during mild-to-moderate LBNP. Interestingly, very high levels of LBNP produced cutaneous vasodilation in some subjects.  (+info)

(8/258) Baroreceptor dysfunction induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition in humans.

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate baroreceptor regulation of sympathetic nerve activity and hemodynamics after inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. BACKGROUND: Both the sympathetic nervous system and endothelium-derived substances play essential roles in cardiovascular homeostasis and diseases. Little is known about their interactions. METHODS: In healthy volunteers, we recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSA) with microneurography and central hemodynamics measured at different levels of central venous pressure induced by lower body negative pressure. RESULTS: After administration of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 1 mg/kg/min), systolic blood pressure increased by 24 mm Hg (p = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure by 12 mm Hg (p = 0.009), while stroke volume index (measured by thermodilution) fell from 53 to 38 mL/min/m2 (p < 0.002). Administration of L-NMMA prevented the compensatory increase of heart rate, but not MSA, to orthostatic stress. The altered response of heart rate was not due to higher blood pressure, because heart rate responses were not altered during infusion of the alpha-1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (titrated to an equal increase of systolic blood pressure). In the presence of equal systolic blood pressure and central venous pressure, we found no difference in MSA during phenylephrine and L-NMMA infusion. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a highly specific alteration of baroreceptor regulation of heart rate but not muscle sympathetic activity after inhibition of NO synthesis in healthy volunteers. This suggests an important role of NO in reflex-mediated heart rate regulation in humans.  (+info)