Control of ketogenesis from amino acids. IV. Tissue specificity in oxidation of leucine, tyrosine, and lysine.
In vitro and in vivo studies were made on the tissue specificity of oxidation of the ketogenic amino acids, leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. In in vitro studies the abilities of slices of various tissues of rats to form 14CO2 from 14C-amino acids were examined. With liver, but not kidney slices, addition of alpha-ketoglutarate was required for the maximum activities with these amino acids. Among the various tissues tested, kidney had the highest activity for lysine oxidation, followed by liver; other tissues showed very low activity. Kidney also had the highest activity for leucine oxidation, followed by diaphragm; liver and adipose tissue had lower activities. Liver had the highest activity for tyrosine oxidation, but kidney also showed considerable activity; other tissues had negligible activity. In in vivo studies the blood flow through the liver or kidney was stopped by ligation of the blood vessels. Then labeled amino acids were injected and recovery of radioactivity in respiratory 14CO2 was measured. In contrast to results with slices, no difference was found in the respiratory 14CO2 when the renal blood vessels were or were not ligated. On the contrary ligation of the hepatic vessels suppressed the oxidations of lysine and tyrosine completely and that of leucine partially. Thus in vivo, lysine and tyrosine seem to be metabolized mainly in the liver, whereas leucine is metabolized mostly in extrahepatic tissues and partly in liver. Use of tissue slices seems to be of only limited value in elucidating the metabolisms of these amino acids. (+info
Pulsed Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of portal blood flow in dogs with experimental portal vein branch ligation.
Portal blood flow was measured using pulsed Doppler ultrasound in 6 dogs before and after left portal vein branch ligation. Mean portal vein blood flow velocity and mean portal vein blood flow were significantly reduced after ligation and the congestion index was increased (p < 0.01). Pulsed Doppler ultrasound studies provide valuable physiological information which may assist the clinician with the diagnosis of canine hepatic circulatory disorders. (+info
Lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation in hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Hilar cholangiocarcinoma can obstruct hepatic ducts and involve the portal veins. Both biliary stasis and decrease in portal venous flow are known to reduce 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) accumulation. The specific relationship between these pathological conditions due to hilar cholangiocarcinomas and 99mTc-GSA accumulation has never been clarified. METHODS: Sixteen patients with hilar cholangiocarcinomas who underwent 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy were reviewed. The relationship between significant decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation and lobar biliary stasis, or decrease in the portal venous flow, was evaluated. Average counts of region of interest placed in both right and left lobes were compared in the same transaxial SPECT section. Count ratios of right and left lobes were calculated. RESULTS: Significant lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation was observed in 6 of the 16 patients. Ipsilateral portal venous stenosis or obstruction was seen in all these 6 patients, whereas ipsilateral portal venous stenosis or obstruction was seen in only 1 of the other 10 patients. Symmetric bile duct dilatation was seen in 13 patients, and asymmetric bile duct dilatation was seen in 3. Lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation correlated well with decrease in ipsilateral portal venous flow (P < 0.0005). The count ratio was significantly reduced when unilateral portal venous flow decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Using 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy, we can predict lobar decrease in ipsilateral portal venous flow and monitor hepatic functional lateralities in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinomas. (+info
Preserved arterial flow secures hepatic oxygenation during haemorrhage in the pig.
1. This study examined the extent of liver perfusion and its oxygenation during progressive haemorrhage. We examined hepatic arterial flow and hepatic oxygenation following the reduced portal flow during haemorrhage in 18 pigs. The hepatic surface oxygenation was assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy and the hepatic metabolism of oxygen, lactate and catecholamines determined the adequacy of the hepatic flow. 2. Stepwise haemorrhage until circulatory collapse resulted in proportional reductions in cardiac output and in arterial, central venous and pulmonary wedge pressures. While heart rate increased, pulmonary arterial pressure remained stable. In addition, renal blood flow decreased, renal vascular resistance increased and there was elevated noradrenaline spill-over. Further, renal surface oxygenation was lowered from the onset of haemorrhage. 3. Similarly, the portal blood flow was reduced in response to haemorrhage, and, as for the renal flow, the reduced splanchnic blood flow was associated with an elevated noradrenaline spill-over. In contrast, hepatic arterial blood flow was only slightly reduced by haemorrhage, and surface oxygenation did not change. The hepatic oxygen uptake was maintained until the blood loss represented more than 30 % of the estimated blood volume. At 30 % reduced blood volume, hepatic catecholamine uptake was reduced, and the lactate uptake approached zero. 4. Subsequent reduction of cardiac output and portal blood flow elicited a selective dilatation of the hepatic arterial vascular bed. Due to this dilatation liver blood flow and hepatic cell oxygenation and metabolism were preserved prior to circulatory collapse. (+info
Hepatosplanchnic haemodynamics and renal blood flow and function in rats with liver failure.
BACKGROUND: Massive liver necrosis, characteristic of acute liver failure, may affect hepatosplanchnic haemodynamics, and contribute to the alterations in renal haemodynamics and function. AIMS: To investigate the relation between hepatosplanchnic haemodynamics, including portal systemic shunting, and renal blood flow and function in rats with acute liver failure. METHODS: Liver failure was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of 1.1 g/kg of D(+)-galactosamine hydrochloride. The parameters assessed included; systemic, hepatosplanchnic, and renal blood flow (57Co microsphere method); portal-systemic shunting and intrarenal shunting (consecutive intrasplenic, intraportal, or renal arterial injections of 99mTc methylene diphosphonate and 99mTc albumin microspheres); arterial blood pressure and portal pressure; renal function; and liver function (liver function tests and 14C aminopyrine breath test). RESULTS: Progressive liver dysfunction was accompanied by the development of a hyperdynamic circulation, a highly significant decrease in renal blood flow and function, and an increase in intrarenal shunting 36, 42, and 48 hours after administration of D-galactosamine. The alterations in renal blood flow and function were accompanied by significant increases in portal pressure, portal venous inflow, and intrahepatic portal systemic shunting in galactosamine treated rats compared with controls. There was a significant correlation between changes in renal blood flow and changes in portal pressure, intrahepatic portal systemic shunting, and deterioration in liver function (r = 0.8, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that both increased intrahepatic portal systemic shunting and hepatocyte impairment may contribute to alterations in renal haemodynamics and function. (+info
Assessment of the mechanism of juxtacrine activation and adhesion of leukocytes in liver microcirculation.
Leukotriene C4 (LTC4), histamine, and other mediators can induce expression of P-selectin and platelet-activating factor (PAF) on venular endothelium to recruit leukocytes in vivo and in vitro via a juxtacrine mechanism of adhesion. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of histamine and LTC4 on the leukocyte recruitment in the liver and to study the components and molecular mechanisms involved in this process. We visualized the hepatic microvasculature using intravital microscopy and we determined that LTC4 (20 nM) but not histamine (0.1, 0.3, or 1 mM) induced leukocyte recruitment in the liver microcirculation. Histamine could induce leukocyte recruitment but only in the presence of an antihistaminase. The LTC4-induced leukocyte recruitment occurred primarily in sinusoids (not venules) and was not inhibitable by three different anti-P-selectin antibodies (5H1, RMP-1, and RB40). Leukocyte recruitment in P-selectin-deficient mice, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-deficient mice, and mice treated with a PAF antagonist was of the same magnitude as in wild-type animals in response to LTC4. Although PAF alone could induce adhesion in both sinusoids and postsinusoidal venules, this chemotactic agent was not involved in LTC4-induced adhesion in the liver. Finally, an overlapping role for P-selectin and ICAM-1 was ruled out as LTC4 induced leukocyte recruitment in P-selectin and ICAM-1 double-deficient mice. These data demonstrate that LTC4 does not activate the known early mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment, including P-selectin, PAF, or ICAM-1 in the hepatic microvasculature. (+info
Total and functional hepatic blood flow decrease in parallel with ageing.
OBJECTIVES: To study changes in hepatic blood flow with age. DESIGN: Functional hepatic flow (FHF) and total hepatic flow (THF) were determined by non-invasive methods in 40 normal subjects in four age groups (<45, 45-60, 61-75 and >75 years). All subjects had normal routine liver function tests and no history of liver disease. RESULTS: THF was measured by pulsed echo-Doppler, as the sum of portal and hepatic artery blood flow; FHF was measured by the hepatic clearance of D-sorbitol. THF significantly decreased with age, particularly in subjects over 75 (from 1445+/-220 ml/min to 1020+/-148; P<0.001), and a similar reduction was observed in FHF (from 1514+/-250 ml/min to 1015+/-163; P<0.001). THF and FHF were strictly correlated in the whole population (r = 0.871; P<0.001) and both correlated with age (r = -0.510 and r = -0.596; P<0.005). CONCLUSION: With ageing there is a reduction of hepatic blood flow without any additional intrahepatic shunting. (+info
A new sample-processing unit for the fluorescent microsphere method.
The use of fluorescent-labeled microspheres (FM) for measurement of regional blood flow is an attractive alternative to the use of radioactive-labeled microspheres. In the FM method the FM have to be completely recovered from the tissue samples in a time- and labor-intensive process. For this reason, a considerable loss of FM is possible. The aim of this study was to develop a filtration device that allows the tissue sample to remain in a single container throughout the procedure to make the process easier and to avoid the loss of FM. The core of the sample-processing unit (SPU) is a single-tube filtration device with a polyamide wire mesh. The protocol for processing tissue from different organs (heart, kidney, liver, spleen, intestine, muscle, bone, lung, brain) was modified and thus shortened significantly. Furthermore, the SPU allows direct filtration of the blood reference sample without previous digestion. Different experiments showed that the SPU in combination with the new protocol excludes the loss of 15-micrometers FM. The modifications of the whole procedure render it faster and highly standardized. (+info