(1/366) Ballistic shock wave lithotripsy in an 18-year-old thoroughbred gelding.

Prolonged postoperative recuperation time and restricted exercise were circumvented by using ballistic shock wave lithotripsy to break up an 8-cm diameter vesical calculus and by flushing out the sand-like residue under epidural anesthesia with the horse standing. Recovery was uneventful.  (+info)

(2/366) Profiles in laparoscopy: Mouret, Dubois, and Perissat: the laparoscopic breakthrough in Europe (1987-1988).

In the late 1980s, laparoscopy was essentially a gynecologist's tool. One of the French private surgeons, Phillipe Mouret of Lyon, shared his surgery practice with a gynecologist and thus had access to both laparoscopic equipment and to patients requiring laparoscopy. In March of 1987, Mouret carried out his first cholecystectomy by means of electronic laparoscopy. Although he never published anything about this experience, the news on his technique reached Francois Dubois of Paris. Although having no prior laparoscopic experience, Dubois acted immediately. He borrowed the instruments from gynecologists, performed his first animal experiments and, in April 1988, carried out the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in Paris. Inspired by Dubois, Jacques Perissat of Bordeaux, introduced endoscopic cholecystectomy in his clinic and presented this technique at a SAGES meeting in Louisville in April 1989. Very soon, news of the French work in LC soon swept beyond the country's borders. Dubois and Perissat spoke enthusiastically about their work at the meetings and were largely responsible for establishing what is today called the French technique.  (+info)

(3/366) Long term follow up of patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic stones treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting reports as to whether pancreatic ductal drainage achieved by endoscopy and lithotripsy improves the clinical outcome of patients with chronic pancreatitis. AIMS: To determine the clinical outcome in patients with chronic pancreatitis who received extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and were followed up for two to eight years. METHODS: Eighty patients with severe chronic pancreatitis and endoscopically unretrievable obstructive stones underwent ESWL with a piezoelectric lithotripter between 1989 and 1996. Clinical status, relief of symptoms, further endoscopic or surgical interventions, and mortality were defined. RESULTS: Forty three (54%) patients were treated successfully with ESWL. The only feature associated with treatment success was the presence of a single stone rather than multiple stones. Successfully treated patients tended to experience less pain, although this did not reach statistical significance. A slight increase in weight was noted in our patients; however, there was no notable improvement in anomalous stools and diabetes mellitus. Five patients died due to extrapancreatic reasons. No pancreatic carcinomas developed. CONCLUSIONS: ESWL associated with endoscopic drainage is a safe technique that is particularly successful in patients with a single stone. However, pancreatic drainage by endoscopy and ESWL has almost no effect on pain in chronic pancreatitis. Furthermore, endoscopic management and ESWL does not prevent or postpone the development of glandular insufficiency.  (+info)

(4/366) Relationship between kidney size, renal injury, and renal impairment induced by shock wave lithotripsy.

The relationship between kidney size and impaired renal function induced by shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) was examined in 6- and 10-wk-old anesthetized pigs. Each pig received 2000 shock waves, 24 kV, or sham SWL to the lower pole calyx of one kidney. Bilateral GFR, renal plasma flow (RPF), and para-aminohippurate extraction was measured 1 h before and 1 and 4 h after SWL. The kidneys were then removed for morphometric analysis. Mean kidney weights were 66.1+/-2.7 g (n = 9) and 103.1+/-3.3 g (n = 8) in the SWL groups, and 60.1+/-2.6 g (n = 9) and 82.3+/-4.0 g (n = 9) in the sham-SWL groups. SWL-induced lesions occupied a significantly greater volume of the small kidneys (6.1+/-1.7 vol % versus 1.5+/-0.2 vol% in the large kidneys). RPF was significantly reduced by SWL in small and large kidneys, but to a significantly greater extent in small kidneys. RPF was also significantly reduced in the contralateral kidneys of both groups, but only at 1 h after SWL. SWL significantly reduced GFR to similar degrees in both kidneys of both groups, regardless of kidney size. Para-aminohippurate extraction was likewise reduced to similar degrees in both groups, but this effect was evident only in the SWL-treated kidneys, and only in the pole to which the shock waves had been applied. The injury induced by SWL affected a larger fraction of small kidneys than large ones, and the renal vasoconstriction induced by SWL was greatest in small kidneys.  (+info)

(5/366) National trend of the incidence of urolithiasis in Japan from 1965 to 1995.

BACKGROUND: A nationwide survey of urolithiasis in Japan was made in order to evaluate the chronological trend of upper urinary tract stones in the Japanese. It succeeded previous studies done in 1955, 1966, 1979, and 1990. METHODS: All outpatient visits to urologists that resulted in a diagnosis of first-episode upper urinary tract stones in the years 1990 and 1995 were enumerated, irrespective of admission and treatment. The study enrolled all of the Japanese Board of Urology-approved hospitals, thereby covering nearly all urologists practicing in Japan. The annual incidence by sex and age was estimated and compared with the incidences in the previous nationwide surveys. RESULTS: The age-adjusted annual incidence of first-episode upper urinary tract stones in 1995 was estimated as 68.9 per 100,000 (100.1 in men and 55.4 in women), a steady increase from 54.2 in 1965. The annual incidence has increased in all age groups, except in those of the first three decades. The peak age for both sexes has shifted in toward the older population's direction. Estimations of longitudinal changes between 1965 and 1995 showed that the annual incidence has more than doubled for the cohort of the 1965 census population (from 43.7 in 1965 to 110.9 in 1995) and that younger generations have had progressively higher annual incidences. CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence of upper urinary tract stones in Japan has increased steadily over the past 30 years and will continue to do so in the near future, but it still is lower than in the United States.  (+info)

(6/366) The effect of discharge voltage on renal injury and impairment caused by lithotripsy in the pig.

The present study was designed to determine the effects of shock wave voltage (kV) on lesion size and renal function induced by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the 6- to 8-wk-old pig. Each SWL-treated pig received 2000 shock waves at 12, 18, or 24 kV to the lower pole calyx of one kidney. A group of sham SWL pigs served as time controls. Bilateral GFR, renal plasma flow (RPF), and para-aminohippurate (PAH) extraction were measured 1 h before and 1 and 4 h after SWL in all treated and sham animals. The kidneys were removed at the end of each experiment for morphometric analysis. The SWL-induced lesion increased significantly in size as shock wave energy was increased from 12 to 24 kV. PAH extraction, a measure of tubular function, was not significantly affected at 12 kV, was transiently reduced at 18 kV, and was reduced for the duration of the experiment at 24 kV. GFR and RPF, however, were significantly and similarly reduced at the 1 h post-SWL period at all three kilovolt levels. At the 4-h post-SWL period, both GFR and RPF had returned to baseline levels. Lesion size and tubular injury were correlated with changes in kilovoltage, while changes in renal hemodynamics were already maximal at the lowest discharge voltage. These findings suggest that renal microvessels are highly sensitive to shock waves and that frank injury to tubules and vessels may be more closely related to discharge energy than is renal blood flow.  (+info)

(7/366) Section 4--bioeffects in tissues with gas bodies. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

Several animal models have exhibited thresholds for petechial hemorrhage in lung within the current output of diagnostic ultrasound systems. In addition, thresholds for damage in the mouse intestine due to diagnostic pulses of ultrasound have been explored. The implications for human lung and intestinal exposure to clinical diagnostic ultrasound have not yet been determined. In this section, the data supporting the thresholds of petechial hemorrhage in these organ systems and the morphological observations will be reviewed. The potential mechanical mechanisms of damage to these organs due to diagnostic ultrasound also will be reviewed. Special attention will be given to the occurrence of inertial cavitation both in vitro and in vivo. The effects of ultrasound parameters, age, and species on the threshold for damage in animal models will be explored.  (+info)

(8/366) Management of gallstones and their complications.

The accurate differentiation of gallstone-induced biliary colic from other abdominal disease processes is the most crucial step in the successful management of gallstone disease. Despite the availability of many imaging techniques to demonstrate the presence of gallstones, clinical judgment ultimately determines the association of symptoms with cholelithiasis and its complications. Adult patients with silent or incidental gallstones should be observed and managed expectantly, with few exceptions. In symptomatic patients, the intervention varies with the type of gallstone-induced complication. In this article, we review the salient clinical features, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options employed in the management of gallstones and their complications.  (+info)