(1/53) Time-dependency of improvements in arterial oxygenation during partial liquid ventilation in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome.

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which partial liquid ventilation (PLV) can improve gas exchange in acute lung injury are still unclear. Therefore, we examined the time- and dose-dependency of the improvements in arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) due to PLV in eight pigs with experimental lung injury, in order to discriminate increases due to oxygen dissolved in perfluorocarbon before its intrapulmonary instillation from a persistent diffusion of the respiratory gas through the liquid column. RESULTS: Application of four sequential doses of perfluorocarbon resulted in a dose-dependent increase in PaO2. Comparison of measurements 5 and 30 min after instillation of each dose revealed a time-dependent decrease in PaO2 for doses that approximated the functional residual capacity of the animals. CONCLUSION: Although oxygen dissolved in perfluorocarbon at the onset of PLV can cause a short-term improvement in arterial oxygenation, diffusion of oxygen through the liquid may not be sufficient to maintain the initially observed increase in PaO2.  (+info)

(2/53) Does perfluorocarbon deoxygenate during partial liquid ventilation?

Perfluorocarbons accumulate in the dependent regions of the lungs, which may result in regional hypoxia if ventilation with oxygen is insufficient to oxygenate the dependent perfluorocarbon-filled alveoli. In this issue of Critical Care, Max et al present data that demonstrate a decrease in arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) at 30 min compared to that observed at 5 min after administration of FC 3280. These data suggest failure of on-going ventilation/oxygenation to support the initial increase in PaO2 attributed to the oxygen dissolved in the administered perfluorocarbon. Studies such as this one demonstrate that development of the optimal partial liquid ventilation (PLV) technique is ongoing.  (+info)

(3/53) Perfluorohexane attenuates proinflammatory and procoagulatory response of activated monocytes and alveolar macrophages.

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of liquid ventilation with perfluorocarbons in improving pulmonary function in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although it is known that perfluorocarbon-associated gas exchange facilitates lung mechanics and oxygenation, the complete mechanism by which perfluorocarbons exert their beneficial effects in acute lung injury still remains unclear. Possibly, an influence of perfluorocarbons on proinflammatory and procoagulant features of monocytic cells present in the alveolar space, such as alveolar macrophages (AMs), may be involved. Therefore, we examined in an in vitro model the effects of perfluorocarbon on both activated mononuclear blood cells (MBCs) and AMs by monitoring the expression of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, and tissue factor (TF). METHODS: Mononuclear blood cells, obtained from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers, or AMs from diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage were stimulated by incubation with lipopolysaccharide in the presence of different amounts of perfluorohexane, which was devoid of cytotoxicity. RESULTS: Using both video-enhanced contrast and electron microscopy, the authors observed that perfluorohexane droplets were phagocytosed by activated monocytes as well as by in vitro--cultured AMs within 1--3 h. After lipopolysaccharide stimulation of monocytes or AMs, we observed a down-regulation of TF mRNA and a significant inhibition (P < 0.05) of cellular TF antigen by perfluorohexane. In addition, the concentration of both IL-1 beta and TNF alpha in the supernatant of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated MBC was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by perfluorohexane compared with controls without perfluorohexane. By preincubation of lipopolysaccharide-containing medium with perfluorohexane, the authors could exclude that the inhibitory effect of perfluorohexane was caused by binding or sequestering limited amounts of lipopolysaccharide. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results demonstrate an interference of perfluorohexane with the expression of the procoagulant protein TF on monocytes and AMs as well as with the release of proinflammatory cytokines by MBCs. These effects may contribute to the protective role of liquid ventilation with perfluorocarbons in injuries associated with local activation of inflammatory processes.  (+info)

(4/53) Changes in pulmonary blood flow during gaseous and partial liquid ventilation in experimental acute lung injury.

BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that partial liquid ventilation (PLV) causes a compression of the pulmonary vasculature by the dense perfluorocarbons and a subsequent redistribution of pulmonary blood flow from dorsal to better-ventilated middle and ventral lung regions, thereby improving arterial oxygenation in situations of acute lung injury. METHODS: After induction of acute lung injury by repeated lung lavage with saline, 20 pigs were randomly assigned to partial liquid ventilation with two sequential doses of 15 ml/kg perfluorocarbon (PLV group, n = 10) or to continued gaseous ventilation (GV group, n = 10). Single-photon emission computed tomography was used to study regional pulmonary blood flow. Gas exchange, hemodynamics, and pulmonary blood flow were determined in both groups before and after the induction of acute lung injury and at corresponding time points 1 and 2 h after each instillation of perfluorocarbon in the PLV group. RESULTS: During partial liquid ventilation, there were no changes in pulmonary blood flow distribution when compared with values obtained after induction of acute lung injury in the PLV group or to the animals submitted to gaseous ventilation. Arterial oxygenation improved significantly in the PLV group after instillation of the second dose of perfluorocarbon. CONCLUSIONS: In the surfactant washout animal model of acute lung injury, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow does not seem to be a major factor for the observed increase of arterial oxygen tension during partial liquid ventilation.  (+info)

(5/53) Effects of perfluorochemical distribution and elimination dynamics on cardiopulmonary function.

Based on a physicochemical property profile, we tested the hypothesis that different perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids may have distinct effects on intrapulmonary PFC distribution, lung function, and PFC elimination kinetics during partial liquid ventilation (PLV). Young rabbits were studied in five groups [healthy, PLV with perflubron (PFB) or with perfluorodecalin (DEC); saline lavage injury and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV); saline lavage injury PLV with PFB or with DEC]. Arterial blood chemistry, respiratory compliance (Cr), quantitative computed tomography of PFC distribution, and PFC loss rate were assessed for 4 h. Initial distribution of PFB was more homogenous than that of DEC; over time, PFB redistributed to dependent regions whereas DEC distribution was relatively constant. PFC loss rate decreased over time in all groups, was higher with DEC than PFB, and was lower with injury. In healthy animals, arterial PO(2) (Pa(O(2))) and Cr decreased with either PFC; the decrease was greater and sustained with DEC. Lavaged animals treated with either PFC demonstrated increased Pa(O(2)), which was sustained with PFB but deteriorated with DEC. Lavaged animals treated with PFB demonstrated increased Cr, higher Pa(O(2)), and lower arterial PCO(2) than with CMV or PLV with DEC. The results indicate that 1) initial distribution and subsequent intrapulmonary redistribution of PFC are related to PFC properties; 2) PFC distribution influences PFC elimination, gas exchange, and Cr; and 3) PFC elimination, gas exchange, and Cr are influenced by PFC properties and lung condition.  (+info)

(6/53) Role of ventilation strategy on perfluorochemical evaporation from the lungs.

To study the effect of ventilation strategy on perfluorochemical (PFC) elimination profile (evaporative loss profile; E(L)), 6 ml/kg of perflubron were instilled into anesthetized normal rabbits. The strategy was to maintain minute ventilation (VE, in ml/min) in three groups: VE(L) (low-range VE, 208 +/- 2), VE(M) (midrange VE, 250 +/- 9), and VE(H) (high-range VE, 293 +/- 1) over 4 h. In three other groups, respiratory rate (RR, breaths/min) was controlled at 20, 30, or 50 with a constant VE and adjusted tidal volume. PFC content in the expired gas was measured, and E(L) was calculated. There was a significant VE- and time-dependent effect on E(L.) Initially, percent PFC saturation and loss rate decreased in the VE(H) > VE(M) > VE(L) groups, but by 3 h the lower percent PFC saturation resulted in a loss rate such that VE(H) < VE(M) < VE(L) at 4 h. For the groups at constant VE, there was a significant time effect on E(L) but no RR effect. In conclusion, E(L) profile is dependent on VE with little effect of the RR-tidal volume combination. Thus measurement of E(L) and VE should be considered for the replacement dosing schemes during partial liquid ventilation.  (+info)

(7/53) Mechanisms of recruitment in oleic acid-injured lungs.

Lung recruitment strategies, such as the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), are thought to protect the lungs from ventilator-associated injury by reducing the shear stress associated with the repeated opening of collapsed peripheral units. Using the parenchymal marker technique, we measured regional lung deformations in 13 oleic acid (OA)-injured dogs during mechanical ventilation in different postures. Whereas OA injury caused a marked decrease in the oscillation amplitude of dependent lung regions, even the most dependent regions maintained normal end-expiratory dimensions. This is because dependent lung is flooded as opposed to collapsed. PEEP restored oscillation amplitudes only at pressures that raised regional volumes above preinjury levels. Because the amount of PEEP necessary to promote dependent lung recruitment increased the end-expiratory dimensions of all lung regions (nondependent AND dependent ones) compared with their preinjury baseline, the "price" for recruitment is a universal increase in parenchymal stress. We conclude that the mechanics of the OA-injured lung might be more appropriately viewed as a partial liquid ventilation problem and not a shear stress and airway collapse problem and that the mechanisms of PEEP-related lung protection might have to be rethought.  (+info)

(8/53) Delayed partial liquid ventilation shows no efficacy in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury in swine.

In an earlier neonatal porcine model of smoke inhalation injury (SII), immediate postinjury application of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) had dramatic beneficial effects on lung compliance, oxygenation, and survival over a 24-h period. To explore the efficacy of PLV following SII, we treated animals at 2 and 6 h after SII and followed them for 72 h. Pigs weighing 8-12 kg were sedated and pharmacologically paralyzed, given a SII, and placed on volume-cycled, pressure-limited ventilation. Animals were randomized to three groups: group I (+SII, no PLV, n = 8), group II (+SII, PLV at 2 h, n = 6), and group III (+SII, PLV at 6 h, n = 7). Ventilatory parameters and arterial blood gasses were obtained at scheduled intervals. The PLV animals (groups II and III) followed a worse course than group I (no PLV); PLV groups had higher peak and mean airway pressures, oxygenation index, and rate-pressure product (a barotrauma index) and lower lung compliance and arterial partial pressure of oxygen-to-inspired oxygen fraction ratio (all P < 0.05). PLV conferred no survival advantage. The reported beneficial effects of PLV with other models of acute lung injury do not appear to extend to the treatment of SII when PLV is instituted in a delayed manner. This study was not able to validate the previously reported beneficial effects of PLV in SII and actually found deleterious effects, perhaps reflecting the predominance of airway over alveolar disease in SII.  (+info)