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(1/148) SCAR R&D Symposium 2003: comparing the efficacy of 5-MP CRT versus 3-MP LCD in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease.

The efficacy of two medical-grade, self-calibrating, gray scale displays were compared with regard to impact on sensitivity and specificity for the detection of interstitial lung disease (ILD) on computed radiographs (CR). The displays were a 5-megapixel (MP) cathode ray tube (CRT) device and a 3-MP liquid crystal display (LCD). A sample consisting of 230 anteroposterior (AP), posteroanterior (PA), and lateral views of the chest with CT-proven findings characteristic for ILD as well as 80 normal images were compared. This double-blinded trial produced a sample sufficient to detect if the sensitivity of the LCD was 10% or more reduced (one-sided) from the "gold standard" CRT display. Both displays were calibrated to the DICOM gray scale standard and the coefficient of variation of the luminance function varied less than 2% during the study. Five board-certified radiologists specializing in thoracic radiology interpreted the sample on both displays and the intraobserver Az (area under the ROC curve) showed no significant correlation to the display used. In addition, an interobserver kappa analysis showed that the relative disagreement between any observer pair remained relatively constant between displays, and thus was display invariant. This study demonstrated there is no significant change in observer performance sensitivity on 5-MP CRT versus 3-MP LCD displays for CR examinations demonstrating ILD of the chest.  (+info)

(2/148) Solution for nonuniformities and spatial noise in medical LCD displays by using pixel-based correction.

Liquid crystal displays (LCD) are rapidly replacing cathode ray tube displays (CRT) for medical imaging. LCD technology has improved significantly in the last few years and has important advantages over CRT. However, there are still some aspects of LCD that raise questions as to the usefulness of liquid crystal displays for very subtle clinical diagnosis such as mammography. One drawback of modern LCD displays is the existence of spatial noise expressed as measurable stationary differences in the behavior of individual pixels. This type of noise can be described as a random stationary image superposed on top of the medical image being displayed. It is obvious that this noise image can make subtle structures invisible or add nonexistent patterns to the medical image. In the first case, subtle abnormalities in the medical image could remain undetected, whereas in the second case, it could result into a false positive. This paper describes a method to characterize the spatial noise present in high-resolution medical displays and a technique to solve the problem. A medical display with built-in compensation for the spatial noise at pixel level was developed and improved image quality is demonstrated.  (+info)

(3/148) Interactions of liquid crystal-forming molecules with phospholipid bilayers studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

Recent experiments have shown that liquid crystals can be used to image mammalian cell membranes and to amplify structural reorganization in phospholipid-laden liquid crystal-aqueous interfaces. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations were employed to explore the interactions between commonly used liquid crystal-forming molecules and phospholipid bilayers. In particular, umbrella sampling was used to obtain the potential of mean force of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) and 4'-(3,4-difluor-phenyl)-4-pentyl-bicylohexyl (5CF) molecules partitioning into a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer. In addition, results of simulations are presented for systems consisting of a fully hydrated bilayer with 5CB or 5CF molecules at the lowest (4.5 mol %) and highest (20 mol %) concentrations used in recent laboratory experiments. It is found that mesogens preferentially partition from the aqueous phase into the membrane; the potential of mean force exhibits highly favorable free energy differences for partitioning (-18 k(B)T for 5CB and -26 k(B)T for 5CF). The location and orientation of mesogens associated with the most stable free energies in umbrella sampling simulations of dilute systems were found to be consistent with those observed in liquid-crystal-rich bilayers. It is found that the presence of mesogens in the bilayer enhances the order of lipid acyl tails, and changes the spatial and orientational arrangement of lipid headgroup atoms. These effects are more pronounced at higher liquid-crystal concentrations. In comparing the behavior of 5CB and 5CF, a stronger spatial correlation (i.e., possibly leading to aggregation) is observed between 5CB molecules within a bilayer than between 5CF molecules. Also, the range of molecular orientations and positions along the bilayer normal is larger for 5CB molecules. At the same time, 5CF molecules were found to bind more strongly to lipid headgroups, thereby slowing the lateral motion of lipid molecules.  (+info)

(4/148) Neonatal hypothermia detection by ThermoSpot in Indian urban slum dwellings.

OBJECTIVE: To look at the performance of ThermoSpot liquid crystal thermometry in detecting neonatal hypothermia. DESIGN: A comparison was made between skin temperatures taken by ThermoSpot and axillary temperatures taken by digital electric thermometry. Non-medically trained local volunteers performed daily paired recordings on infants on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of life. SETTING: This is a non-hospital based study set in the homes of neonates in an underprivileged urban slum community in the developing world. SUBJECTS: INCLUSION CRITERIA: babies born at home. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: hospital admission; parental refusal. INTERVENTIONS: The ThermoSpot was stuck to the neonate's abdomen over the liver area on day 1 and removed on day 7. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fixed test properties of ThermoSpot. RESULTS: Over 180 paired observations, the fixed test properties of ThermoSpot in the detection of hypothermia were: sensitivity 88%; specificity 97%; positive likelihood ratio 29; negative likelihood ratio 0.13. CONCLUSIONS: ThermoSpot performed well when used by non-medically trained volunteers for the detection of neonatal hypothermia in the homes of an urban slum community.  (+info)

(5/148) Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator.

A liquid crystal programmable phase modulator (PPM) is used as correcting device in an adaptive optics system for three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT). The feasibility of the PPM to correct high order aberrations even when using polychromatic light is studied, showing potential for future clinical use. Volumetric UHR OCT of the living retina, obtained with up 25,000A-scans/s and high resolution enables visualization of retinal features that might correspond to groups of terminal bars of photoreceptors at the external limiting membrane.  (+info)

(6/148) Accuracy and consistency of radiographic interpretation among clinical instructors using two viewing systems.

Accurate and consistent radiographic interpretation among clinical instructors is needed for assessment of teaching, student performance, and patient care. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the method of radiographic viewing affects accuracy and consistency of instructors' determinations of bone loss. Forty-one clinicians who provide instruction in a dental school clinical teaching program (including periodontists, general dentists, periodontal graduate students, and dental hygienists) quantified bone loss for up to twenty-five teeth into four descriptive categories using a view box for plain film viewing or a projection system for digitized image viewing. Ratings were compared to the correct category as determined by direct measurement using the Schei ruler. Agreement with the correct choice for the view box and projection system was 70.2 percent and 64.5 percent, respectively. The mean difference was better for a projection system due to small rater error by graduate students. Projection system ratings were slightly less consistent than view box ratings. Dental hygiene faculty ratings were the most consistent but least accurate. Although the projection system resulted in slightly reduced accuracy and consistency among instructors, training sessions utilizing a single method for projecting digitized radiographic images have their advantages and may positively influence dental education and patient care by enhancing accuracy and consistency of radiographic interpretation among instructors.  (+info)

(7/148) Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications.

Presbyopia is an age-related loss of accommodation of the human eye that manifests itself as inability to shift focus from distant to near objects. Assuming no refractive error, presbyopes have clear vision of distant objects; they require reading glasses for viewing near objects. Area-divided bifocal lenses are one example of a treatment for this problem. However, the field of view is limited in such eyeglasses, requiring the user to gaze down to accomplish near-vision tasks and in some cases causing dizziness and discomfort. Here, we report on previously undescribed switchable, flat, liquid-crystal diffractive lenses that can adaptively change their focusing power. The operation of these spectacle lenses is based on electrical control of the refractive index of a 5-mum-thick layer of nematic liquid crystal using a circular array of photolithographically defined transparent electrodes. It operates with high transmission, low voltage (<2 Vrms), fast response (<1 sec), diffraction efficiency > 90%, small aberrations, and a power-failure-safe configuration. These results represent significant advance in state-of-the-art liquid-crystal diffractive lenses for vision care and other applications. They have the potential of revolutionizing the field of presbyopia correction when combined with automatic adjustable focusing power.  (+info)

(8/148) Spectral imaging perspective on cytomics.

BACKGROUND: Cytomics involves the analysis of cellular morphology and molecular phenotypes, with reference to tissue architecture and to additional metadata. To this end, a variety of imaging and nonimaging technologies need to be integrated. Spectral imaging is proposed as a tool that can simplify and enrich the extraction of morphological and molecular information. Simple-to-use instrumentation is available that mounts on standard microscopes and can generate spectral image datasets with excellent spatial and spectral resolution; these can be exploited by sophisticated analysis tools. METHODS: This report focuses on brightfield microscopy-based approaches. Cytological and histological samples were stained using nonspecific standard stains (Giemsa; hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)) or immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques employing three chromogens plus a hematoxylin counterstain. The samples were imaged using the Nuance system, a commercially available, liquid-crystal tunable-filter-based multispectral imaging platform. The resulting data sets were analyzed using spectral unmixing algorithms and/or learn-by-example classification tools. RESULTS: Spectral unmixing of Giemsa-stained guinea-pig blood films readily classified the major blood elements. Machine-learning classifiers were also successful at the same task, as well in distinguishing normal from malignant regions in a colon-cancer example, and in delineating regions of inflammation in an H&E-stained kidney sample. In an example of a multiplexed ICH sample, brown, red, and blue chromogens were isolated into separate images without crosstalk or interference from the (also blue) hematoxylin counterstain. CONCLUSION: Cytomics requires both accurate architectural segmentation as well as multiplexed molecular imaging to associate molecular phenotypes with relevant cellular and tissue compartments. Multispectral imaging can assist in both these tasks, and conveys new utility to brightfield-based microscopy approaches.  (+info)