(1/1038) Unsaturated fatty acid requirements for growth and survival of a rat mammary tumor cell line.
A cell line, the growth and survival of which is markedly affected by linoleic acid, has been established from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor. The cells have been continuously passaged in 5% rat serum plus 10% fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. The rat serum component was found to be indispensalbe, for when it was omitted the growth rate rapidly declined and the cells died by 5 to 7 days. Removal of the rat serum from the growth medium also resulted in a dramatic loss of Oil Red O-positive droplets in the cells, suggesting that the lipid component of rat serum might be a major growth-promoting principle in rat serum. This is likely since the total lipid fraction, but not the delipidized protein fraction, could largely supplant requirement of the cells for rat serum. Pure linoleic acid was found to be effective in maintaining the cell growth in delipidized serum or in whole fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. Fatty acid analysis revealed a 19-fold higher amount of linoleic acid in rat serum than in fetal calf serum. (+info)
(2/1038) Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices.
1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis. (+info)
(3/1038) 13-(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) incorporation and conversion to novel products by endothelial cells.
13(S)-Hydroxy-[12,13-3H]octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE), a linoleic acid oxidation product that has vasoactive properties, was rapidly taken up by bovine aortic endothelial cells. Most of the 13-HODE was incorporated into phosphatidylcholine, and 80% was present in the sn -2 position. The amount of 13-HODE retained in the cells gradually decreased, and radiolabeled metabolites with shorter reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography retention times (RT) than 13-HODE accumulated in the extracellular fluid. The three major metabolites were identified by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry as 11-hydroxyhexadecadienoic acid (11-OH-16:2), 9-hydroxytetradecadienoic acid (9-OH-14:2), and 7-hydroxydodecadienoic acid (7-OH-12:2). Most of the radioactivity contained in the cell lipids remained as 13-HODE. However, some 11-OH-16:2 and several unidentified products with longer RT than 13-HODE were detected in the cell lipids. Normal human skin fibroblasts also converted 13-HODE to the three major chain-shortened metabolites, but Zellweger syndrome fibroblasts produced only a very small amount of 11-OH-16:2. Therefore, the chain-shortened products probably are formed primarily by peroxisomal beta-oxidation. These findings suggest that peroxisomal beta-oxidation may constitute a mechanism for the inactivation and removal of 13-HODE from the vascular wall. Because this is a gradual process, some 13-HODE that is initially incorporated remains in endothelial phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine. This may be the cause of some of the functional perturbations produced by 13-HODE in the vascular wall. (+info)
(4/1038) Protective effect of flavonoids on endothelial cells against linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced toxicity.
The protective effect of flavonoids against linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LOOH)-induced cytotoxicity was examined by using cultured endothelial cells. When the cells were incubated with both LOOH and flavonoids, most flavonols protected the cells from injury by LOOH. Flavones bearing an ortho-dihydroxy structure also showed a protective effect against the cytotoxicity of LOOH. However, flavanones had no effect. The structure-activity relationship revealed the presence of either the ortho-di-hydroxy structure in the B ring of the flavonoids or 3-hydroxyl and 4-oxo groups in the C ring to be important for the protective activities. The interaction between flavonoids and a-tocopherol was also examined in this system. Flavonoids that were protective against LOOH-induced cytotoxicity had at least an additive effect on the action of alpha-tocopherol against LOOH-induced damage. (+info)
(5/1038) Uptake of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid by cultured cells.
Oxidized free fatty acids have profound effects on cultured cells. However, little is known about whether these effects depend on their uptake and metabolism by cells or primarily involve their interaction with cell-surface components. We determined the uptake and metabolism of unoxidized (linoleic or oleic acid) and oxidized linoleic acid (13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid, 13-HPODE) by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. We show that 13-HPODE is poorly taken up by cells. The levels of uptake were dependent on the cell type but were independent of the expression of CD36. 13-HPODE was also poorly used by microsomal lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase that is involved in the formation of phosphatidylcholine. Based on these results, we suggest that most of the biological effects of 13-HPODE and other oxidized free fatty acids on cells might involve a direct interaction with cell-surface components. Alternatively, very small amounts of oxidized free fatty acids that enter the cell may have effects, analogous to those of hormones or prostanoids. (+info)
(6/1038) Formation of 9-hydroxy linoleic acid as a product of phospholipid peroxidation in diabetic erythrocyte membranes.
The increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals (OFR) and lipid peroxidation may contribute to vascular complications in diabetes. Some lipid peroxidation products have already been reported to be formed via glucose-induced oxidative stress. We have identified 9-hydroxy linoleic acid (9-OH-C18:2) in the red cell membrane phospholipid of diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that 9-OH-C18:2 would be formed in hydroxyl radical reactions to linoleic acid (C18:2) during glucose-induced oxidative stress, and confirmed that the formation of 9-OH-C18:2 was induced by ultraviolet (UV)-C irradiation to the synthetic C18:2. UV-C light generates highly reactive hydroxy radicals. C18:2 is confirmed to be the precursor of 9-OH-C18:2. To estimate the degree of oxidative damage to red cell membrane phospholipids, we developed a selective ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometric measurement for C18:2 and 9-OH-C18:2, following methanolysis of red cell membrane phospholipids. The relative peak height ratio of C18:2 to 9-OH-C18:2 (9-OH-C18:2/C18:2) was measured in phospholipid extracts of red cell membranes from healthy (n=29, 3.1+/-1.9%) and diabetic (n=27, 20. 9+/-16.1%) subjects. It was confirmed that 9-OH-C18:2/C18:2 is significantly (P<0.001) elevated in patients with diabetes. The measurement of 9-OH-C18:2/C18:2 in red cell membranes should be useful for assessing oxidative damage to membrane phospholipids in diabetes. (+info)
(7/1038) Antiplatelet effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers.
Conjugated diene isomers of linoleic acid (CLA) are normal constituents of certain foods and exhibit anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties. In the present study, the effects of several CLA isomers on human platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism were examined. It was found that 9c,11t-CLA, 10t, 12c-CLA and 13-hydroxy-9c,11t-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) inhibited arachidonic acid- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation with I50s in the 5-7 microM range. The nonconjugated 9c, 12c-LA was about 300% and 50%, respectively, less potent an inhibitor with these aggregating agents. Using either thrombin or the calcium ionophore A23187 as aggregating agents, a CLA isomer mix was also found to be more inhibitory than 9c,12c-LA. The 9c,11t- and 10t,12c-CLA isomers as well as the CLA isomer mix inhibited formation of the proaggregatory cyclooxygenase-catalyzed product TXA2, as measured by decreased production of its inactive metabolite [14C]TXB2 from exogenously added [14C]arachidonic acid (I50s=9-16 microM). None of the CLA isomers tested inhibited production of the platelet lipoxygenase metabolite [14C]12-HETE. The additional presence of a hydroxyl group gave opposite results: 13-HODE (I50=3 microM) was about 4-fold more potent a cyclooxygenase inhibitor than the 9c,11t-CLA isomer but 9-HODE was 2- to 3-fold less effective an inhibitor (I50=34 microM) of [14C]TXB2 formation than the corresponding 10t,12c-CLA. In both the aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism experiments, the inhibitory effects of CLA on platelets were reversible and dependent on the time of addition of either the aggregating agent or the [14C]arachidonic acid substrate. These studies suggest that CLA isomers may also possess antithrombotic properties. (+info)
(8/1038) Loss-of-function mutations in PPAR gamma associated with human colon cancer.
The gamma isoform of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR gamma, regulates adipocyte differentiation and has recently been shown to be expressed in neoplasia of the colon and other tissues. We have found four somatic PPAR gamma mutations among 55 sporadic colon cancers: one nonsense, one frameshift, and two missense mutations. Each greatly impaired the function of the protein. c.472delA results in deletion of the entire ligand binding domain. Q286P and K319X retain a total or partial ligand binding domain but lose the ability to activate transcription through a failure to bind to ligands. R288H showed a normal response to synthetic ligands but greatly decreased transcription and binding when exposed to natural ligands. These data indicate that colon cancer in humans is associated with loss-of-function mutations in PPAR gamma. (+info)