(1/5532) Inheritance in erythropoietic protoporphyria: a common wild-type ferrochelatase allelic variant with low expression accounts for clinical manifestation.
Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of heme biosynthesis characterized by partial decrease in ferrochelatase (FECH; EC 220.127.116.11) activity with protoporphyrin overproduction and consequent painful skin photosensitivity and rarely liver disease. EPP is normally inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern with low clinical penetrance; the many different mutations that have been identified are restricted to one FECH allele, with the other one being free of any mutations. However, clinical manifestations of dominant EPP cannot be simply a matter of FECH haploinsufficiency, because patients have enzyme levels that are lower than the expected 50%. From RNA analysis in one family with dominant EPP, we recently suggested that clinical expression required coinheritance of a normal FECH allele with low expression and a mutant FECH allele. We now show that (1) coinheritance of a FECH gene defect and a wild-type low-expressed allele is generally involved in the clinical expression of EPP; (2) the low-expressed allelic variant was strongly associated with a partial 5' haplotype [-251G IVS1-23T IVS2microsatA9] that may be ancestral and was present in an estimated 10% of a control group of Caucasian origin; and (3) haplotyping allows the absolute risk of developing the disease to be predicted for those inheriting FECH EPP mutations. EPP may thus be considered as an inherited disorder that does not strictly follow recessive or dominant rules. It may represent a model for phenotype modulation by mild variation in expression of the wild-type allele in autosomal dominant diseases. (+info)
(2/5532) The relative power of family-based and case-control designs for linkage disequilibrium studies of complex human diseases. II. Individual genotyping.
In this paper we consider test statistics based on individual genotyping. For sibships without parents, but with unaffected as well as affected sibs, we introduce a new test statistic (referred to as TDS), which contrasts the allele frequency in affected sibs versus that estimated for the parents from the entire sibship. For sibships without parents, this test is analogous to the TDT and is completely robust to nonrandom mating patterns. The efficiency of the TDS test is comparable to that of the THS test (which compares affected vs. unaffected sibs and was based on DNA pooling), for sibships with one affected child. However, as the number of affected sibs in the sibship grows, the relative efficiency of the TDS test versus the THS test also increases. For example, for sibships with three affected, one-third fewer families are required; for families with four affected, nearly half as many are required. Thus, when sibships contain multiple affected individuals, the TDS test provides both an increase in power and robustness to nonrandom mating. (+info)
(3/5532) High-resolution physical and genetic mapping of the critical region for Meckel syndrome and Mulibrey Nanism on chromosome 17q22-q23.
Previously, we assigned the genes for two autosomal recessive disorders, Meckel syndrome (MKS; MIM 249000) and Mulibrey Nanism [MUL (muscle-liver-brain-eye Nanism); MIM 253250] that are enriched in the Finnish population, to overlapping genomic regions on chromosome 17q. Now, we report the construction of a bacterial clone contig over the critical region for both disorders. Several novel CA-repeat markers were isolated from these clones, which allowed refined mapping of the MKS and MUL loci using haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis. The localization of the MKS locus was narrowed to <1 cM between markers D17S1290 and 132-CA, within an approximately 800-kb region. The MUL locus was refined into an approximately 1400-kb interval between markers D17S1290 and 52-CA. The whole MKS region falls within the MUL region. In the common critical region, the conserved haplotypes were different in MKS and MUL patients. A trancript map was constructed by assigning expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genes, derived from the human gene map, to the bacterial clone contig. Altogether, four genes and a total of 20 ESTs were precisely localized. These data provide the molecular tools for the final identification of the MKS and the MUL genes. (+info)
(4/5532) Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis in German Friedreich ataxia families.
The main mutation causing Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the expansion of a GAA repeat localized within the intron between exon 1 and exon 2 of the gene X25. This expansion has been observed in 98% of FRDA chromosomes. To analyze frequencies of markers tightly linked to the Friedreich ataxia gene and to investigate wheter a limited number of ancestral chromosomes are shared by German FRDA families, a detailed analysis employing nine polymorphic markers was performed. We found strong linkage disequilibria and association of FRDA expansions with a few haplotypes. FRDA haplotypes differ significantly from control haplotypes. Our results confirm that GAA repeat expansions in intron 1 of the frataxin gene are limited to a few chromosomes and indicate an obvious founder effect in German patients. Based on these analyses, we estimate a minimum age of the mutation of 107 generations. (+info)
(5/5532) The 2588G-->C mutation in the ABCR gene is a mild frequent founder mutation in the Western European population and allows the classification of ABCR mutations in patients with Stargardt disease.
In 40 western European patients with Stargardt disease (STGD), we found 19 novel mutations in the retina-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCR) gene, illustrating STGD's high allelic heterogeneity. One mutation, 2588G-->C, identified in 15 (37.5%) patients, shows linkage disequilibrium with a rare polymorphism (2828G-->A) in exon 19, suggesting a founder effect. The guanine at position 2588 is part of the 3' splice site of exon 17. Analysis of the lymphoblastoid cell mRNA of two STGD patients with the 2588G-->C mutation shows that the resulting mutant ABCR proteins either lack Gly863 or contain the missense mutation Gly863Ala. We hypothesize that the 2588G-->C alteration is a mild mutation that causes STGD only in combination with a severe ABCR mutation. This is supported in that the accompanying ABCR mutations in at least five of eight STGD patients are null (severe) and that a combination of two mild mutations has not been observed among 68 STGD patients. The 2588G-->C mutation is present in 1 of every 35 western Europeans, a rate higher than that of the most frequent severe autosomal recessive mutation, the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator gene mutation DeltaPhe508. Given an STGD incidence of 1/10,000, homozygosity for the 2588G-->C mutation or compound heterozygosity for this and other mild ABCR mutations probably does not result in an STGD phenotype. (+info)
(6/5532) Ancestral origins and worldwide distribution of the PRNP 200K mutation causing familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) belongs to a group of prion diseases that may be infectious, sporadic, or hereditary. The 200K point mutation in the PRNP gene is the most frequent cause of hereditary CJD, accounting for >70% of families with CJD worldwide. Prevalence of the 200K variant of familial CJD is especially high in Slovakia, Chile, and Italy, and among populations of Libyan and Tunisian Jews. To study ancestral origins of the 200K mutation-associated chromosomes, we selected microsatellite markers flanking the PRNP gene on chromosome 20p12-pter and an intragenic single-nucleotide polymorphism at the PRNP codon 129. Haplotypes were constructed for 62 CJD families originating from 11 world populations. The results show that Libyan, Tunisian, Italian, Chilean, and Spanish families share a major haplotype, suggesting that the 200K mutation may have originated from a single mutational event, perhaps in Spain, and spread to all these populations with Sephardic migrants expelled from Spain in the Middle Ages. Slovakian families and a family of Polish origin show another unique haplotype. The haplotypes in families from Germany, Sicily, Austria, and Japan are different from the Mediterranean or eastern European haplotypes. On the basis of this study, we conclude that founder effect and independent mutational events are responsible for the current geographic distribution of hereditary CJD associated with the 200K mutation. (+info)
(7/5532) Age estimates of two common mutations causing factor XI deficiency: recent genetic drift is not necessary for elevated disease incidence among Ashkenazi Jews.
The type II and type III mutations at the FXI locus, which cause coagulation factor XI deficiency, have high frequencies in Jewish populations. The type III mutation is largely restricted to Ashkenazi Jews, but the type II mutation is observed at high frequency in both Ashkenazi and Iraqi Jews, suggesting the possibility that the mutation appeared before the separation of these communities. Here we report estimates of the ages of the type II and type III mutations, based on the observed distribution of allelic variants at a flanking microsatellite marker (D4S171). The results are consistent with a recent origin for the type III mutation but suggest that the type II mutation appeared >120 generations ago. This finding demonstrates that the high frequency of the type II mutation among Jews is independent of the demographic upheavals among Ashkenazi Jews in the 16th and 17th centuries. (+info)
(8/5532) Genetic linkage of IgA deficiency to the major histocompatibility complex: evidence for allele segregation distortion, parent-of-origin penetrance differences, and the role of anti-IgA antibodies in disease predisposition.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (IgAD) is characterized by a defect of terminal lymphocyte differentiation, leading to a lack of IgA in serum and mucosal secretions. Familial clustering, variable population prevalence in different ethnic groups, and a predominant inheritance pattern suggest a strong genetic predisposition to IgAD. The genetic susceptibility to IgAD is shared with a less prevalent, but more profound, defect called "common variable immunodeficiency" (CVID). Here we show an increased allele sharing at 6p21 in affected members of 83 multiplex IgAD/CVID pedigrees and demonstrate, using transmission/diseqilibrium tests, family-based associations indicating the presence of a predisposing locus, designated "IGAD1," in the proximal part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The recurrence risk of IgAD was found to depend on the sex of parents transmitting the defect: affected mothers were more likely to produce offspring with IgAD than were affected fathers. Carrier mothers but not carrier fathers transmitted IGAD1 alleles more frequently to the affected offspring than would be expected under random segregation. The differential parent-of-origin penetrance is proposed to reflect a maternal effect mediated by the production of anti-IgA antibodies tentatively linked to IGAD1. This is supported by higher frequency of anti-IgA-positive females transmitting the disorder to children, in comparison with female IgAD nontransmitters, and by linkage data in the former group. Such pathogenic mechanisms may be shared by other MHC-linked complex traits associated with the production of specific autoantibodies, parental effects, and a particular MHC haplotype. (+info)