A new resistance gene, linB, conferring resistance to lincosamides by nucleotidylation in Enterococcus faecium HM1025.
Resistance to lincomycin and clindamycin in the clinical isolate Enterococcus faecium HM1025 is due to a ribosomal methylase encoded by an ermAM-like gene and the plasmid-mediated inactivation of these antibiotics. We have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene responsible for the inactivation of lincosamides, linB. This gene encodes a 267-amino-acid lincosamide nucleotidyltransferase. The enzyme catalyzes 3(5'-adenylation) (the adenylation of the hydroxyl group in position 3 of the molecules) of lincomycin and clindamycin. Expression of linB was observed in both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme did not display any significant homology with staphylococcal nucleotidyltransferases encoded by linA and linA' genes. Sequences homologous to linB were found in 14 other clinical isolates of E. faecium, indicating the spread of the resistance trait in this species. (+info)
Inducible or constitutive expression of resistance in clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci cross-resistant to erythromycin and lincomycin.
Thirty-five of 40 clinical isolates of enterococci and streptococci cross-resistant to erythromycin and lincomycin and harbouring erm genes were inducibly resistant to these drugs, suggesting that ribosomal methylation is predominantly inducibly expressed in these bacterial genera. Regulatory regions located upstream of the erm genes of four inducible and three constitutive strains were amplified and sequenced. Expression of constitutive resistance in two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis could be accounted for by a large deletion or a DNA duplication within the regulatory regions, respectively. (+info)
Variation in the properties of a strain of Staphylococcus aureus isolated over three months from a single hospital.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus has been isolated from a hospital environment over 3 months. Every isolate was lysed by phage 77, had high-level resistance to streptomycin, and was resistant to about 250 pg per ml of both tetracycline and sulphonamide; a combination of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim produced little bacteristatic synergy towards each isolate. All These organisms were thus considered to be "the same"; the variation in other properties was probably due to rapid evolutionary change in vivo. the variation in senxitivity to methicillin and neomycin, and the absence of penicillinase production in some isolates, probably indicated loss of the relevant genes. Several isolates had probably acquired resistance to lincomycin by a one-step mutatuon in vivo. The usefulness of lincomycin and analogues in treating staphylococcal infections seems limited. (+info)
Further evolution of a strain of Staphylococcus aureus in vivo: evidence for significant inactivation of flucloxacillin by penicillinase.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus (no. FAR4) has been isolated at intervals, for 32 months, from the sputum of a patient with cystic fibrosis of the lung. Changes in the properties of isolates of this strain over the first 18 months have been reported previously (Lacey et al., 1973 and 1974). During the last 14 months (May 1973 to July 1974), further evolution has occurred to produce a total of 31 distinct phenotypes. Recent changes are as follows. 1. The ability of isolates to produce penicillinase in vitro was closely correlated with flucloxacillin therapy. Inactivation of flucloxacillin by penicillinase was demonstrated by diffusion testing (but not MIC determination) in vitro and may have occurred to a significant extent in vivo. 2. Lincomycin-resistant mutants slowly disappeared from the sputum after the termination of clindamycin therapy. 3. All of the recent isolates were resistant to erythromycin, possibly because of the linkage of the genes coding for erythromycin resistance with those coding for the production of delta-haemolysin; delta-haemolysin may be an important "virulence factor". (+info)
Transfer of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance from streptococci to lactobacilli.
The transmissible plasmid pAMbeta1, which codes for erythromycin and lincomycin resistance, was conjugally transferred from a Lancefield group F Streptococcus to a strain of Streptococcus avium. Both organisms served as pAMbeta1 donors for three strains of Lactobacillus casei. Introduction of pAMbeta1 into one of the L. casei strains caused the organism to lose its native 6.7 X 10(6)-dalton plasmid. Loss of the native plasmid produced no alterations in the organism's growth characteristics or fermentation pattern. (+info)
Antibiotic susceptibilities of streptococci from the mouth and blood of patients treated with penicillin or lincomycin and clindamycin.
Patients undergoing dental extractions were non-randomly allocated to three groups, one of which received no antibiotic, one benzylpenicillin followed by oral penicillin for 5 days, and the third intramuscular lincomycin followed by oral clindamycin. Dental extraction was performed at the beginning of the course of chemotherapy. Streptococci were isolated from the extracted teeth, from blood cultures collected before and immediately after dental extraction, and from sutures removed from the gums 5-7 days after the operation. The species of these organisms was determined, and their susceptibilities to penicillin, clindamycin, cephaloridine, erythromycin and tetracycline were assessed. The majority of streptococci isolated from teeth belonged to the species Streptococcus sanguis, S. mitior, S. mutans and S. milleri. Occasional isolates of each of these organisms collected before the antibiotic could take effect were resistant to penicillin. Three of these species, but not S. mutans, were the commonest streptococci to be isolated from the blood after dental extraction. Penicillin completely suppressed dental bacteriaemia under the conditions of our investigation, and lincomycin reduced the incidence by about 60 per cent. The commonest streptococci from sutures were also S. sanguis, S. mitior, S. mutans and S. milleri. S. faecalis was also isolated, but only in patients who had received antibiotics. Among the non-faecalis organisms, penicillin resistance was significantly more frequent among isolates from patients given penicillin than from patients not given this antibiotic, and clindamycin resistance was significantly more frequent among isolates from patients given lincomycin and clindamycin than from patients not given these antibiotics. (+info)
Slow sequential conformational changes in Escherichia coli ribosomes induced by lincomycin: kinetic evidence.
In a cell-free system derived from Escherichia coli, lincomycin produces biphasic logarithmic time plots for inhibition of peptide-bond formation when puromycin is used as an acceptor substrate and AcPhe-tRNA as a donor substrate. In a previous study, initial slope analysis of the logarithmic time plots revealed that the encounter complex CI between the initiator ribosomal complex (C) and lincomycin (I) undergoes a slow isomerization to C*I. During this change, the bound AcPhe-tRNA and lincomycin are rearranged to also accommodate puromycin, and this may account for the mixed noncompetitive inhibition (K(i)* = 70 microM) established at higher concentrations of the drug. The above-mentioned effect was further investigated by analyzing the late phase of the logarithmic time plots. It was found that C*I complex reacts with a second molecule of I, giving C*I(2) complex. However, the logarithmic time plots remain biphasic even at high concentrations of lincomycin, making possible the identification of another inhibition constant K(i)*', which is equal to 18 microM. The simplest explanation of this finding is to assume the existence of a second isomerization step C*I(2) <--> C*I(2'), slowly equilibrated. The determination of K(i)*' enables us to calculate the isomerization constant (K(isom) = 2.9) with the formula K(i)*' = K(i)*/(1 + K(isom)). Our results suggest that whenever a fast and reversible interaction of lincomycin with the elongating ribosomal complex C occurs, the latter undergoes a slow isomerization, which may be the result of conformational changes induced by the drug. (+info)
Characterization of a Bacteroides mobilizable transposon, NBU2, which carries a functional lincomycin resistance gene.
The mobilizable Bacteroides element NBU2 (11 kbp) was found originally in two Bacteroides clinical isolates, Bacteroides fragilis ERL and B. thetaiotaomicron DOT. At first, NBU2 appeared to be very similar to another mobilizable Bacteroides element, NBU1, in a 2.5-kbp internal region, but further examination of the full DNA sequence of NBU2 now reveals that the region of near identity between NBU1 and NBU2 is limited to this small region and that, outside this region, there is little sequence similarity between the two elements. The integrase gene of NBU2, intN2, was located at one end of the element. This gene was necessary and sufficient for the integration of NBU2. The integrase of NBU2 has the conserved amino acids (R-H-R-Y) in the C-terminal end that are found in members of the lambda family of site-specific integrases. This was also the only region in which the NBU1 and NBU2 integrases shared any similarity (28% amino acid sequence identity and 49% sequence similarity). Integration of NBU2 was site specific in Bacteroides species. Integration occurred in two primary sites in B. thetaiotaomicron. Both of these sites were located in the 3' end of a serine-tRNA gene NBU2 also integrated in Escherichia coli, but integration was much less site specific than in B. thetaiotaomicron. Analysis of the sequence of NBU2 revealed two potential antibiotic resistance genes. The amino acid sequences of the putative proteins encoded by these genes had similarity to resistances found in gram-positive bacteria. Only one of these genes was expressed in B. thetaiotaomicron, the homolog of linA, a lincomycin resistance gene from Staphylococcus aureus. To determine how widespread elements related to NBU1 and NBU2 are in Bacteroides species, we screened 291 Bacteroides strains. Elements with some sequence similarity to NBU2 and NBU1 were widespread in Bacteroides strains, and the presence of linA(N) in Bacteroides strains was highly correlated with the presence of NBU2, suggesting that NBU2 has been responsible for the spread of this gene among Bacteroides strains. Our results suggest that the NBU-related elements form a large and heterogeneous family, whose members have similar integration mechanisms but have different target sites and differ in whether they carry resistance genes. (+info)