Resistance imparted by traditional Chinese medicines to the acute change of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase activities in rat blood caused by noise.
The activities of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatine kinase (CK) in rats injected or not with the Chinese medicines, Astragali, Rhodiolae and Ligusticum, were determined after noise exposure. Noise at 95 and 105 dB significantly increased the activities of GPT, ALP and CK, and showed a dependence on the exposure time. The injection of each medicine significantly suppressed the increased enzyme activities by 95 and 105 dB noise. (+info)
Tetramethylpyrazine protected photoreceptor cells of rats by modulating nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB.
AIM: To evaluate the effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) injection on retinal damage induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in rats and on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) family members. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into groups: (i), control group; (ii), model group; and (iii), TMP-injection groups, in which the rats were subdivided into 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg groups. Drugs were injected ip into 47-day-old SD rats once a day. At 50 days of age, all rats in the model group and drug groups also received a single ip injection of 60 mg/kg MNU. Rats in group 1 received ip injection of physiological saline. All rats were killed at different times after MNU or physiological saline treatment. The apoptotic index of photoreceptor cells was calculated by TUNEL labeling; retinal damage was evaluated based on retinal thickness and the expression of NF-kappaB family members was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: TMP injections, in a dose-dependent manner, suppressed photoreceptor cell apoptosis and decreased its loss in the peripheral retina. As compared with the MNU-treated group, TMP injection at a dose of 160 mg/kg also time-dependently upregulated the NF-kappaB/p65 protein level in the nucleus and downregulated the IkappaBalpha protein level in the cytoplasm. However, no protective effect of TMP injection on MNU-induced central retinal damage was found. CONCLUSION: TMP injection partially protects against MNU-induced retinal damage by upregulating the nuclear translocation of p65 to inhibit photoreceptor cells apoptosis. (+info)
Type two cytokines predominance of human lung cancer and its reverse by traditional Chinese medicine TTMP.
Type 2 cytokines are usually predominant in tumor patients and associated with tumor progression. To explore whether reversing of type 2 predominance could be a promising strategy in tumor immunotherapy, PBMC of 35 lung cancer patients and 19 healthy subjects were prepared and subjected to be examined for cytokine secretion and gene expression. Tetra-Methylpyrazine (TTMP), extracted from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb which has been used in clinic to reverse the Th2 status of cancer patients in China, was added to PBMC culture. Determined by RT-PCR, the positive percentages of mRNA expression of type 1 cytokines (8.6% for IFN-gamma and 11.4% for IL-2) were lower than those of type 2 cytokines (71.4% for IL-4, 60% for IL-6 and 80% for IL-10) in patients' PBMCs. The potential of gene expressing (measured as relative intensity to the ratio of beta-actin) in the patients for type 1 cytokines was also in a low level (0.111 for IFN-gamma, 0.119 for IL-2) in comparison with a relative high level for type 2 cytokines (0.319 for IL-4, 0.303 for IL-6 and 0.377 for IL-10). Meanwhile, both positive percentage and relative intensity of gene expression were lower for a type 1 cytokine-related transcription factor T-bet (31.4% and 0.142, respectively) than those for type 2 cytokine-related GATA3 (85.7% and 0.378, respectively). The blood serum levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 in the patients were slightly lower but not significantly when compared with healthy control. In contrast, the levels IL-4 and IL-6 in patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects by ELISA analysis. TTMP could enhance supernatant concentration and gene expression levels of IFN-gamma, IL-2 and T-bet, but reduce those of type 2 cytokines. These results demonstrate that the lung cancer patients had a predominant expression of type 2 cytokines and TTMP could reverse the type 2 dominant status, which might offer an alternative therapeutic regime for lung cancer patients. (+info)
Identification and comparative determination of senkyunolide A in traditional Chinese medicinal plants Ligusticum chuanxiong and Angelica sinensis by HPLC coupled with DAD and ESI-MS.
Using the HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS method, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of senkyunolide A (SA) in the rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong; CX) and roots of Angelica sinensis (DG) was established. As a result, it was found that SA is a characteristic standard compound for the quality evaluation and chemical differentiation between CX and DG. Methanol was chosen in the preparation of standard solutions and extraction of samples based on the stability data. The identity of SA in CX and DG was unambiguously determined based on the quasimolecular ions in ESI-MS. A comprehensive validation of the method, including sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility and recovery, was conducted using the optimized chromatographic conditions. The linear calibration curve was acquired with R2>0.999 and limit of detection (S/N=3) was estimated to be 12.5 mug/g. The reproducibility was evaluated by repeated sample injection and replicated analysis of samples with the relative standard deviation (RSD) value found within 0.68%. The recovery rates of SA varied within the range of 96.91-101.50% with RSD less than 2.38%. In the present work, the contents of SA were quantified within 3.94-9.14 mg/g and 0.108-0.588 mg/g for 12 batches each of CX and DG. The results demonstrated that SA is a useful standard compound for the quality evaluation and chemical differentiation between CX and DG. The analytical procedure is precise and reproducible and thus suitable for the analysis of a large number of samples. (+info)
Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analyses of the major constituents in the rhizome of Ligusticum Chuanxiong using HPLC-DAD-MS.
An HPLC-DAD-MS method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Chuanxiong (the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort). Twenty compounds including phenolic constituents, alkylphthalides and phthalide dimers were identified using online ESI-MS and comparisons with literature data and standard compounds, and six of them were quantified by HPLC-DAD simultaneously. A comprehensive validation of the method including sensitivity, linearity, repeatability and recovery was conducted. The linear regressions were acquired with R(2) > 0.99 and limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) values were between 1.5 and 2.5 ng. The repeatability was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and relative standard deviation (RSD) values were reported within 1.87%. The recovery studies for the quantified compounds were observed in the range of 96.36-102.37% with RSD values less than 2.63%. These phenolic constituents and alkylphthalides, the major constituents in Chuanxiong, are generally regarded as the index for the quality assessment of this herb. The overall procedure is accurate and reproducible, which is considered suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of a large number of Chuanxiong samples. (+info)
Analysis of volatile oil in Rhizoma ligustici chuanxiong-Radix paeoniae rubra by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometric resolution.
AIM: To analyze the volatile chemical components of the herbal pair Rhizoma Ligustici chuanxiong-Radix paeoniae rubra (RLC-RPR) and compare them with those of each of the herbs alone. METHODS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), a chemometric resolution technique using the heuristic evolving latent projections (HELP) method, and the overall volume integration method were used. RESULTS: In total, 52, 38, and 61 volatile chemical components in RLC, RPR, and RLC-RPR essential oils were determined, respectively, accounting for 95.14%, 95.19%, and 89.68% of the total contents of essential oil of RLC, RPR, and RLC-RPR, respectively. The main volatile chemical components were butyldienephthalide (20.65%) and ligustilide (50.15%) for RLC; and n-hexadecanoic acid (20.18%), [Z,Z]9,12-octadecadienoic acid (30.11%), 2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (17.08%) for RPR, and butyldienephthalide (14.80%), and ligustilide (38.91%) for RLC-RPR. The main volatile chemical components of RLC-RPR were almost the same as those of RLC, but the relative amounts were altered. CONCLUSION: The number of volatile chemical components in RLC-RPR was almost equal to the sum of the number in the 2 constituent herbs, but the relative amounts were altered. Furthermore, an acid-base reaction takes place during the process of decocting the herbs. The data gathered in this study may be helpful for understanding the synergistic nature of this herb pair in traditional Chinese medicine. (+info)
Cardiac muscle sarcolemma chromatographic stationary phase and its potential application in drug screening.
A new bioactive packing material for liquid chromatography, sarcolemma chromatography stationary phase (SCSP), is presented. Its surface characteristics are investigated, and it is found that the acceptors embedded in sarcolemma remained bioactive for more than a week. The retention behavior of antagonists and activators related to cardiac muscle sarcolemma on the SCSP chromatographic column shows the screening function of the SCSP column, and the retention behavior of the active components in the aether extract from the Chinese herb Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. on the SCSP column reveals, to a certain extent, the separation function of the SCSP column. These suggest that SCSP is a potentially useful material in drug screening. (+info)
Ligustrazine alleviates acute lung injury in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis.
BACKGROUND: Acute necrotizing pancreatitis leads to a systemic inflammatory response characterized by widespread leukocyte activation and, as a consequence, distant lung injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ligustrazine, extracted from Ligusticum wallichii a traditional Chinese medicine, on lung injury in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). METHODS: A total of 192 rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (C group); ANP without treatment (P group); and ANP treated with ligustrazine (T group). Each group was further divided into 0.5, 2, 6 and 12 hours subgroups. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital. Sodium taurocholate was infused through the pancreatic membrane to induce ANP. For the T group, sodium taurocholate was infused as above, then 0.6% ligustrazine was administered via the femoral vein. The effects of ligustrazine on the severity of lung injury were assessed by lung wet/dry weight ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histopathological changes. Pulmonary blood flow was determined by the radioactive microsphere technique (RMT). RESULTS: The blood flow in the P group was significantly lower than that of the C group, while the blood flow in the T group was significantly higher than that of the P group but showed no significant difference from the C group. Compared with C group, the lung wet/dry ratios in both the P and T groups were significantly increased, but there was no significant difference between them. The MPO activity in the P group was greatly increased over that of the C group. In the T group, although the MPO activity was also higher than in the C group, it much less increased than in the P group. Moreover, the difference between P and T groups was significant after 0.5 to 12 hours. After induction of the ANP model, the pancreas showed mild edema and congestion; the longer the time, the more severe this became. The pulmonary pathological changes were aggravated significantly in the P group. Histopathological scores were higher in the P group than in the C group throughout the experimental course. Histopathological scores in the T group were lower than those in the P group at 6 and 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Microcirculatory disorder is an important factor of lung injury in ANP. Ligustrazine can ameliorate microcirculatory disorder and alleviate the damage to the lung. (+info)