Rumen ciliate protozoal fauna of native sheep, friesian cattle and dromedary camel in Libya.
Rumen ciliate species and composition were surveyed on the native sheep, Friesian-cattle and dromedary (one-humped) camels kept in Libya. As a result of survey, 5 genera including 14 species with 5 formae in native sheep, 9 genera including 27 species with 6 formae in Friesian-cattle and 6 genera including 13 species and 7 formae in dromedary camels were identified. All of the ciliate species and their percentage composition detected from the Libyan sheep and cattle in this examination were similar to those found from corresponding animals in the other countries. Libyan camels lacked some peculiar ciliate species found from camels in the other countries, but had many cosmopolitan species common with those in the domestic ruminants, suggesting that ciliate faunae of camel are easily affected by the other domestic ruminants kept together. The ciliate density was estimated as 105/ml in every host species. (+info)
An extensive ultrasound and serologic study to investigate the prevalence of human cystic echinococcosis in northern Libya.
A prevalence study of abdominal cystic echinococcosis (CE) was undertaken in the northwest, north-central, and northeast regions of Libya. A total of 36 villages along the coast were included, in which 20,220 people were screened by portable ultrasound. Three hundred thirty-nine (1.7%) were diagnosed with CE. There was no significant difference between CE prevalence rates in the three regions of Libya (mean = 1.6%); however, intervillage rates were variable, ranging from 0% to 4.5%. The prevalence of CE increased significantly with age (P < 0.0001) and females were significantly more affected (2%) than males (1.3%) (P < 0.0001). Cases of CE were distributed among 3.2% of housewives, 2.6% of farmers, 2.3% of male civil servants, 1.3% of female students, and 1.1% of male students. Housewives (P < 0.0001) and students (P < 0.0001) were significantly more at risk for CE. A statistically significant proportion (62% [210 of 339]) of CE cases kept dogs (P < 0.0001). Of the ultrasound-positive CE cases 69% (233 of 339) were antibody seropositive by ELISA using Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst fluid antigen B. Blood samples (n = 10,096) collected onto filter papers were taken randomly from ultrasound-negative people who entered the study, of which 11.2% were found to be seropositive. Seropositivity increased with age (P < 0.0001), with females exhibiting higher seroprevalence than males for all age groups (P < 0.0001). Seroprevalence was distributed occupationally among 17.3% of female students, 11.2% of male students, 8.3% of housewives, 7.3% of farmers, and 6.4% of male civil servants. Housewives and students were more likely to be seropositive (P < 0.0001). Forty-seven percent (526) of the seroreactors kept dogs. All liver hydatid cysts detected by ultrasound during community screening were classified according to morphology and size into six types. Type I (17.5% of all cases) were small univesicular cysts less than 50 mm in diameter with no laminations or daughter cysts. Type II (34%) were univesicular cysts with only laminations. Type IIIa (8.5%) were univesicular cysts with the appearance of laminations and daughter cysts. Type IIIb (13%) were univesicular with laminations and less prominent daughter cysts. Type IV (5.6%) presented as a solid mass. Type V were degenerated calcified or partially calcified cysts (13.2%). Type VI presented as multiple cysts (8% of all cases). The CE cases that exhibited Types II, IIIa, IIIb, IV or VI cysts showed the highest seropositivity (86%, 96%, 95%, 100%, and 96%, respectively), while Types I and V were the least seroreactive (38% and 22%, respectively). Cases of CE occurred in 311 families, with 93% having only one member as a CE case while 7% of the families had two or more cases. However, 25% of the ultrasound-negative persons belonging to families with an index CE case were seropositive for antibodies to Echinococcus. These results confirm the importance of human CE in Libya. They also confirm the usefulness of ultrasound combined with serology as a mass screening approach for CE in north African communities. (+info)
The effect of desert conditions on the reactivity of Libyan schoolchildren to a range of new tuberculins.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of desert conditions on the pattern of delayed hypersensitivity to mycobacteria in school children aged 6-10 and 11-18 years. A new range of tuberculins prepared from ultrasonic lysates of living mycobacteria belonging to 12 different species was employed. Three centres were chosen for study, a sea port and two desert towns differing greatly from each other. The results obtained were compared with those of a previous study using the same reagents in Kenya. As expected both the range of mycobacterial species to which the children reacted, the rate of acquisition of specific hypersensitivity with age and the total percentage of children reacting to individual reagents differed from centre to centre. The harsh desert conditions of Ajdabia produced the least, and the proximity of the people's dwellings to those of their farm animals in Kufra produced the most positive reactors to essentially environmental species. The greatest number of reactions to our Tuberculin were found in Benghazi where the cosmopolitan urban conditions probably lead to a high contact with open cases of tuberculosis. As assessed by skin test reactivity, immunization with BCG in Libya was much less effective than in Kenya. The interpretation of the differences between the results from the different test centres and between those for Libya and Kenya are discussed. (+info)
Muscular dystrophy due to dysferlin deficiency in Libyan Jews. Clinical and genetic features.
The cluster in Jews of Libyan origin of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B due to a dysferlin 1624delG mutation is described. The carrier frequency of this mutation is calculated to be approximately 10% in this population, in which the disease prevalence is at least 1 per 1300 adults. Twenty-nine patients from 12 families were all homozygous for the same mutation. However, clinical features were heterogeneous even within the same family: in half of the patients onset was in the distal muscles of the legs, which is similar to Miyoshi myopathy, while in others onset was in the proximal musculature, which is similar to other forms of limb-girdle dystrophies. Age at onset varied from 12 to 28 years (mean 20.3 +/- 5.5 years). One patient was presymptomatic at age 28 years. Progression was slow regardless of age of onset, patients remaining ambulatory until at least 33 years. Five patients described subacute, painful enlarged calves as an early, unusual feature. The variable features in this ethnic cluster contribute to the definition of the clinical spectrum of dysferlinopathies in general. The cause of the observed heterogeneity remains unclear. (+info)
Distinctive genetic signatures in the Libyan Jews.
Unlinked autosomal microsatellites in six Jewish and two non-Jewish populations were genotyped, and the relationships among these populations were explored. Based on considerations of clustering, pairwise population differentiation, and genetic distance, we found that the Libyan Jewish group retains genetic signatures distinguishable from those of the other populations, in agreement with some historical records on the relative isolation of this community. Our methods also identified evidence of some similarity between Ethiopian and Yemenite Jews, reflecting possible migration in the Red Sea region. We suggest that high-resolution statistical methods that use individual multilocus genotypes may make it practical to distinguish related populations of extremely recent common ancestry. (+info)
Nosocomial outbreak of multiple bloodborne viral infections.
In resource-limited countries, nosocomial transmission of bloodborne pathogens is a major public health concern. After a major outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in approximately 400 children in 1998 in Libya, we tested HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers in 148 children and collected epidemiological data in a subgroup of 37 children and 46 parents. HIV infection was detected in all children but one, with HCV or HBV coinfection in 47% and 33%, respectively. Vertical transmission was ruled out by analysis of parents' serology. The children visited the same hospital 1-6 times; at each visit, invasive procedures with potential blood transmission of virus were performed. HIV and HCV genotypic analyses identified a HIV monophyletic group, whereas 4 clusters of HCV sequences were identified. To our knowledge, this is the largest documented outbreak of nosocomial HIV transmission. (+info)
Expanding global distribution of rotavirus serotype G9: detection in Libya, Kenya, and Cuba.
Serotype G9 may be the fifth most common human rotavirus serotype, after serotypes G1 to G4. In three cross-sectional studies of childhood diarrhea, we have detected serotype G9 rotaviruses for the first time in Libya, Kenya, and Cuba. Serotype G9 constituted 27% of all rotaviruses identified, emphasizing the reemergence of serotype G9 and suggesting that future human rotavirus vaccines will need to protect against disease caused by this serotype. (+info)
Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in Benghazi Libya.
OBJECTIVES: To assess, by a house to house study, the prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and their associated risk factors in Benghazi, Libya using 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and ADA 1997 and WHO 1998 diagnostic criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multistage cluster sampling was used to select the study population. A total of 314 men and 554 women underwent a standard 75 grams OGTT. The response rate was 77.7% for males and 89.2% for females. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IGT was 8.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.8 - 11.3) (men 8.6% 95% CI 7.7-9.6, women 8.5% 95% CI 5.0 -11.9), and that of diabetes was 14.1% (95% CI 10.9-17.1) (men 16.3% 95% CI 14.5-18.3 women 13.0% 95% CI 10.0 - 16.1). Diabetes was present in 19.4% (95% CI 15.4-20.5) (men 22.7% 95% CI 20.2-25.4, women 17.6% 95% CI 14.1-19.1) in 30-64 years age range. Prevalence of diabetes was slightly higher in urban than in rural areas (14.5% vs 13.5%). The prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes in urban and rural areas were 3.6% and 7.3% respectively and that of known diabetes were 10.9% and 6.3% respectively. Associated risk factors with diabetes and IGT were age, family history of diabetes, hypertension, BMI, WHR and serum cholesterol. CONCLUSION: Diabetes is emerging as an important public health problem in Libya and should rank very high in the priority list of health planners. (+info)