The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection.
Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa. (+info)
Molecular behavior of mutant Lewis enzymes in vivo.
The expression of type-1 Lewis antigens on erythrocytes and in digestive organs is determined by a Lewis type alpha(1,3/1, 4)-fucosyltransferase (Lewis enzyme) encoded by the Fuc-TIII gene ( FUT3 gene; Lewis gene). We have classified the Lewis alleles in the Japanese population into four types, the wild-type allele ( Le ) and three mutated alleles, i.e., le1, which has missense mutations T59G and G508A, le2, which has T59G and T1067A, and le3, which has only T59G. Here we carried out an extensive study on the biological properties of the three mutant Lewis enzymes, the le1, le2, and le3 enzymes, using native tissues and obtained the following results. (1) In in vivo and in vitro experiments, the le1 and le2 enzymes were found to be susceptible to protease digestion probably because the one missense mutation in the catalytic domains, i.e., Gly170 to Ser in the le1 enzyme and Ile356 to Lys in the le2 enzyme, makes the three-dimensional structures of the enzymesunstable, while the le3 and wild-type Lewis enzymes wereresistant to protease digestion. (2) The le1 and le2 enzymes cannot synthesize type 1 Lewis antigens on either glycolipids or mucins. The le3 enzyme cannot synthesize Lewis-active glycolipids, which result in the Lewis antigen-negative phenotype of erythrocytes, while it can synthesize Lewis antigens on mucins in normal and cancerous colon tissues. The missense mutation, Leu20 to Arg, in the transmembrane domain reduces retention of the le3 enzyme in the Golgi membrane resulting in an apparent reduction of enzyme activity as revealed by the lack of Lewis antigen synthesis. (3) The Lewis gene dosage actually has effects in vivo on the amount of the Lewis enzyme, its activity, and finally the amounts of Lewis carbohydrate antigens. This is the first article that clearly demonstrates the gene dosage effects on the amount of the glycosyltransferase protein, its activity, and the amounts of carbohydrate products in vivo. (+info)
Endothelial targeting and enhanced antiinflammatory effects of complement inhibitors possessing sialyl Lewisx moieties.
The complement inhibitor soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1) and a truncated form of sCR1, sCR1[desLHR-A], have been generated with expression of the selectin-reactive oligosaccharide moiety, sialyl Lewisx (sLex), as N-linked oligosaccharide adducts. These modified proteins, sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex, were assessed in the L-selectin- and P-selectin-dependent rat model of lung injury following systemic activation of complement by cobra venom factor and in the L-selectin-, P-selectin-, and E-selectin-dependent model of lung injury following intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes. In the cobra venom factor model, sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex caused substantially greater reductions in neutrophil accumulation and in albumin extravasation in lung when compared with the non-sLex-decorated forms. In this model, increased lung vascular binding of sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex occurred in a P-selectin-dependent manner, in contrast to the absence of any increased binding of sCR1 or sCR1[desLHR-A]. In the IgG immune complex model, sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex possessed greater protective effects relative to sCR1[desLHR-A], based on albumin extravasation and neutrophil accumulation. Enhanced protective effects correlated with greater lung vascular binding of sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex as compared with the non-sLex-decorated form. In TNF-alpha-activated HUVEC, substantial in vitro binding occurred with sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex (but not with sCR1[desLHR-A]). This endothelial cell binding was blocked by anti-E-selectin but not by anti-P-selectin. These data suggest that sLex-decorated complement inhibitors have enhanced antiinflammatory effects and appear to have enhanced ability to localize to the activated vascular endothelium. (+info)
Molecular mechanisms of expression of Lewis b antigen and other type I Lewis antigens in human colorectal cancer.
Lewis b (Leb) antigens are gradiently expressed from the proximal to the distal colon, i.e., they are abundantly expressed in the proximal colon, but only faintly in the distal colon. In the distal colon, they begin to increase at the adenoma stage of cancer development and then increase with cancer progression. We aimed to clarify the molecular basis of Leb antigen expression in correlation with the expression of other type I Lewis antigens, such as Lewis a (Lea) and sialylated Lewis a (sLea), in colon cancer cells. Considering the Se genotype and the relative activities of the H and Se enzymes, the amounts of Leb antigens were proved to be determined by both the H and Se enzymes in noncancerous and cancerous colon tissues. But the Se enzyme made a much greater contribution to determining the Lebamounts than the H enzyme. In noncancerous colons, the Se enzyme were gradiently expressed in good correlation with the Leb expression, while the H enzyme was constantly expressed throughout the whole colon. In distal colon cancers, the H and Se enzymes were both significantly upregulated in comparison with in adjacent noncancerous tissues. In proximal colon cancers, expression of the H enzyme alone was highly augmented. The augmented expression of Leb antigens in distal colon cancers is caused mainly by upregulation of the Se enzyme and partly by the H enzymes, while it is caused by upregulation of the H enzyme alone in proximal colon cancers. The Se gene dosage profoundly influences the amounts of the Leb, Lea, and sLea antigens in whole colon tissues, regardless of whether they are noncancerous or cancerous tissues. It suggests that the Se enzyme competes with alpha2,3 sialyltransferase(s) and the Le enzyme for the type I acceptor substrates. (+info)
Poly-N-acetyllactosamine synthesis in branched N-glycans is controlled by complemental branch specificity of I-extension enzyme and beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I.
Poly-N-acetyllactosamine is a unique carbohydrate that can carry various functional oligosaccharides, such as sialyl Lewis X. It has been shown that the amount of poly-N-acetyllactosamine is increased in N-glycans, when they contain Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->6(Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1 -->2)Manalpha1-->6 branched structure. To determine how this increased synthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamines takes place, the branched acceptor was incubated with a mixture of i-extension enzyme (iGnT) and beta1, 4galactosyltransferase I (beta4Gal-TI). First, N-acetyllactosamine repeats were more readily added to the branched acceptor than the summation of poly-N-acetyllactosamines formed individually on each unbranched acceptor. Surprisingly, poly-N-acetyllactosamine was more efficiently formed on Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->2Manalpha-->R side chain than in Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->6Manalpha-->R, due to preferential action of iGnT on Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->2Manalpha-->R side chain. On the other hand, galactosylation was much more efficient on beta1,6-linked GlcNAc than beta1,2-linked GlcNAc, preferentially forming Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->6(GlcNAcbeta1-->2)Manalph a1-->6Manbeta -->R. Starting with this preformed acceptor, N-acetyllactosamine repeats were added almost equally to Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->6Manalpha-->R and Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->2Manalpha-->R side chains. Taken together, these results indicate that the complemental branch specificity of iGnT and beta4Gal-TI leads to efficient and equal addition of N-acetyllactosamine repeats on both side chains of GlcNAcbeta1-->6(GlcNAcbeta1-->2)Manalpha1-->6Manbet a-->R structure, which is consistent with the structures found in nature. The results also suggest that the addition of Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->6 side chain on Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->2Man-->R side chain converts the acceptor to one that is much more favorable for iGnT and beta4Gal-TI. (+info)
L-selectin interactions with novel mono- and multisulfated Lewisx sequences in comparison with the potent ligand 3'-sulfated Lewisa.
The cell adhesion molecule L-selectin binds to 3'-sialyl-Lewis (Le)x and -Lea and to 3'-sulfo-Lex and -Lea sequences. The binding to 3'-sialyl-Lex is strongly affected by the presence of 6-O-sulfate as found on oligosaccharides of the counter receptor, GlyCAM-1; 6-O-sulfate on the N-acetylglucosamine (6-sulfation) enhances, whereas 6-O-sulfate on the galactose (6'-sulfation) virtually abolishes binding. To extend knowledge on the specificity of L-selectin, we have investigated interactions with novel sulfo-oligosaccharides based on the Lex pentasaccharide sequence. We observe that, also with 3'-sulfo-Lex, the 6-sulfation enhances and 6'-sulfation suppresses L-selectin binding. The 6'-sulfation without 3'-sialyl or 3'-sulfate gives no binding signal with L-selectin. Where the 6-sulfo,3'-sialyl-Lex is on an extended di-N-acetyllactosamine backbone, additional 6-O-sulfates on the inner galactose and inner N-acetylglucosamine do not influence the binding. Although binding to the 6,3'-sulfo-Lex and 6-sulfo, 3'-sialyl-Lex sequences is comparable, the former is a more effective inhibitor of L-selectin binding. This difference is most apparent when L-selectin is in paucivalent form (predominantly di- and tetramer) rather than multivalent. Indeed, as inhibitors of the paucivalent L-selectin, the 3'-sulfo-Lex series are more potent than the corresponding 3'-sialyl-Lex series. Thus, for synthetic strategies to design therapeutic oligosaccharide analogs as antagonists of L-selectin binding, those based on the simpler 3'-sulfo-Lex (and also the 3'-sulfo-Lea) would seem most appropriate. (+info)
In vivo ligand specificity of E-selectin binding to multivalent sialyl Lewisx N-linked oligosaccharides.
The in vivo specificity for E-selectin binding to a panel of N-linked oligosaccharides containing a clustered array of one to four sialyl Lewisx (SLex; NeuAcalpha2-3Gal[Fucalpha1-3]beta1-4GlcNAc) determinants was studied in mice. Following intraperitoneal dosing with lipopolysaccharide, radioiodinated tyrosinamide N-linked oligosaccharides were dosed i.v. and analyzed for their pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Specific targeting was determined from the degree of SLex oligosaccharide targeting relative to a sialyl oligosaccharide control. Oligosaccharides targeted the kidney with the greatest selectivity after a 4-h induction period following lipopolysaccharide dosing. Unique pharmacokinetic profiles were identified for SLex biantennary and triantennary oligosaccharides but not for monovalent and tetraantennary SLex oligosaccharides or sialyl oligosaccharide controls. Biodistribution studies established that both SLex biantennary and triantennary oligosaccharides distributed to the kidney with 2-3-fold selectivity over sialyl oligosaccharide controls, whereas monovalent and tetraantennary SLex oligosaccharides failed to mediate specific kidney targeting. Simultaneous dosing of SLex biantennary or triantennary oligosaccharide with a mouse anti-E-selectin monoclonal antibody blocked kidney targeting, whereas co-administration with anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody did not significantly block kidney targeting. The results suggest that SLex biantennary and triantennary are N-linked oligosaccharide ligands for E-selectin and implicate E-selectin as a bivalent receptor in the murine kidney endothelium. (+info)
Alteration of sialyl Lewis epitope expression in pterygium.
PURPOSE: Mucin-related antigens are abundantly expressed by the cells of the normal human conjunctiva. The pattern of these antigens in pterygium, and especially the role of Galbeta1-3GlcNAc alpha2,3-sialyltransferase (ST3Gal III), sialyltransferase necessary to build the sialyl-Le(a) (Lewis(a)) antigen, were studied. METHODS: Immunoperoxidase staining was performed on 28 pterygia using different monoclonal antibodies: anti-M1 (against the peptidic core of gastric mucins encoded by MUC 5AC gene), anti-Le(a)(7LE), anti-sialyl Le(a)(NS 19-9), and anti-Le(b)(2-25LE). A serologic Lewis determination was done in 18 patients. ST3Gal III sialyltransferase expression was also studied in 10 healthy conjunctiva and 10 pterygia by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase was used as an endogenous internal control. RESULTS: First, Le(a), sialyl Le(a), and Le(b) immunoreactivities either decreased or were no longer detectable in pterygium goblet cells as opposed to normal conjunctiva. Second, unlike in pterygium, the Lewis immunoreactivity, which is mainly located in the surface epithelial cells in the normal conjunctiva, was occasionally restricted to the epithelial cells of the deep layers. However, M1 mucins did show an identical pattern expression in a normal conjunctiva and pterygium. ST3Gal III expression was significantly lower in pterygium (0.20+/-0.02 AU [arbitrary units]) than in normal conjunctiva (0.95+/-0.12 AU). CONCLUSIONS: ST3Gal III gene is less expressed in pterygium than in normal conjunctiva. This observation could explain the decrease of sialyl Le(a) expression observed in pterygium by immunohistology. (+info)