Targeting sigma receptor-binding benzamides as in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic agents for human prostate tumors. (1/26)

Sigma receptors are known to be expressed in a variety of human tumor cells, including breast, neural, and melanoma tumors. A very high density (1.0-1.5 million receptors/cell) of sigma receptors was also reported in a human androgen-dependent prostate tumor cell line (LNCaP). In this study, we show that a very high density of sigma receptors is also expressed in an androgen-independent human prostate tumor cell line (DU-145). Pharmacological binding studies using the sigma-1-selective ligand [3H](+)-pentazocine showed a high-affinity binding (Kd = 5.80 nM, Bmax = 1800 fmol/mg protein). Similarly, binding studies with [3H]1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine in the presence of dextrallorphan also showed a high-affinity binding (Kd = 15.71 nM, Bmax = 1930 fmol/mg protein). Radioiodinated benzamide N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)ethyl]-3-[125I]iodo-4-methoxybenzamide ([125I]PIMBA) was also shown to bind DU-145 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Three different radioiodinated benzamides, [125I]PIMBA, 4-[125I]iodo-N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)ethyl]benzamide, and 2-[125I]-N-(N-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-2-iodobenzamide, were screened for their potential to image human prostate tumors in nude mice bearing human prostate cells (DU-145) xenografts. All three compounds showed a fast clearance from the blood pool and a high uptake and retention in the tumor. Therapeutic potential of nonradioactive PIMBA was studied using in vitro colonogenic assays. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell colony formation was found in two different human prostate cells. These results demonstrate the potential use of sigma receptor binding ligands in non-invasive diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer and its treatment.  (+info)

The antitussive activity of delta-opioid receptor stimulation in guinea pigs. (2/26)

In this study, the activity of the delta-opioid receptor subtype-selective agonist, SB 227122, was investigated in a guinea pig model of citric acid-induced cough. Parenteral administration of selective agonists of the delta-opioid receptor (SB 227122), mu-opioid receptor (codeine and hydrocodone), and kappa-opioid receptor (BRL 52974) produced dose-related inhibition of citric acid-induced cough with ED(50) values of 7.3, 5.2, 5.1, and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (3 mg/kg, i.m.), attenuated the antitussive effects of codeine or SB 227122, indicating that the antitussive activity of both compounds is opioid receptor-mediated. The delta-receptor antagonist, SB 244525 (10 mg/kg, i.p.), inhibited the antitussive effect of SB 227122 (20 mg/kg, i.p.). In contrast, combined pretreatment with beta-funaltrexamine (mu-receptor antagonist; 20 mg/kg, s.c.) and norbinaltorphimine (kappa-receptor antagonist; 20 mg/kg, s.c.), at doses that inhibited the antitussive activity of mu- and kappa-receptor agonists, respectively, was without effect on the antitussive response of SB 227122 (20 mg/kg, i.p.). The sigma-receptor antagonist rimcazole (3 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the antitussive effect of dextromethorphan (30 mg/kg, i.p.), a sigma-receptor agonist, but not that of SB 227122. These studies provide compelling evidence that the antitussive effects of SB 227122 in this guinea pig cough model are mediated by agonist activity at the delta-opioid receptor.  (+info)

Effect of fentanyl, a narcotic analgesic, on two components of the jaw opening reflex. (3/26)

An action of fentanyl, a short-acting narcotic, on the reflex discharge in the digastric nerve induced by the inferior alveolar nerve stimulation was investigated in alpha-chloralose anesthetized cats. In the ipsilateral digastric reflex discharge, there were an early phase induced by stimulus exciting Aalpha fibers and a late phase appearing when Adelta fibers were also stimulated. Following dorso-lateral cordotomy at the obex level, an isolation of the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis, a total area in the digastric reflex discharge decreased, while its first peak amplitude was little affected, indicating a disappearance of the late phase and a preservation of the early phase. Fentanyl depressed both the total discharge area and the first peak amplitude. After dorso-lateral cordotomy, the depression of the area decreased considerably, whereas that of the amplitude decreased slightly. Results indicate that fentanyl depressed both the early phase which is activated by the Aalpha fiber stimulation, not via the subnucleus caudalis and the late phase which is activated by the Adelta fiber stimulation via the sub-nucleus caudalis or its surroundings. The latter action would be related to the analgesic action of fentanyl.  (+info)

Physical dependence on morphine, phenobarbital and diazepam in rats by drug-admixed food ingestion. (4/26)

To produce physical dependence on morphine, phenobarbital and diazepam in rats, these drugs were mixed with powder form of rat food in concentrations of 0.5 mg/g, 1 mg/g and 2 mg/g of food. One group of rats (the lower dose group) was continuously exposed for 1 week to two morphine-admixed foods with morphine to food ratios of 0.5 mg/g and 1 mg/g in a cage. The other group (the higher dose group) could choose between two morphine-admixed foods with morphine to food ratios of 1 mg/g and 2 mg/g. After 1 week, morphine-admixed foods were replaced with morphine free food for 2 days. Both groups of rats showed greatly reduced body weight and food intake after the first 24-48 hr withdrawal. The body weight decrease was greater for rats in the higher dose group. Control groups of morphine dependent rats were kept on the morphine added food diets and showed the same body weight increase as well as normal control rats during the course of these experiments. Physical dependence on phenobarbital and diazepam was produced using the same dosage schedules as with morphine. Both the lower and higher dose groups showed significant decrease in body weight due to withdrawal after 1 week of drug-food exposure. Levallorphan (0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg/kg, s.c.) administered to morphine dependent rats had dose-dependent effects on the intensity of abstinence symptoms (e.g., diarrhea, piloerection and wet shakes phenomena), maximal decrease in body weight and duration of decreased body weight. Cross-physical dependence between phenobarbital and diazepam was demonstrated by this method.  (+info)

Effects of naloxone and levallorphan on the spinal cord reflex potentials under the spinal ischemic condition in cats. (5/26)

The spinal reflex potentials elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve were recorded from the lumbo-sacral ventral root in spinal cats. When the thoracic aorta and the bilateral internal mammary arteries were occluded for 10 min, the potentials were completely depressed. Reappearance of these potentials could be observed at about 10 min after removal of the occlusion and they gradually recovered. Intravenous injection of naloxone (1 or 10 mg/kg) or levallorphan (0.1 mg/kg) together with removal of occlusion significantly promoted the recovery of the polysynaptic reflex potential. Morphine (5 mg/kg) showed no particular effect on the recovery of potentials. Furthermore, pretreatment with morphine (5 mg/kg) did not influence the effects of these opioid antagonists. These results suggest that naloxone and levallorphan may preserve or potentiate the interneuronal activities of the lumbo-sacral spinal cord under the ischemic condition and that the effects may not be mediated through morphine-like opioid receptors.  (+info)

Use of polymyxin B, levallorphan, and tetracaine to isolate novel envelope mutants of Escherichia coli. (6/26)

Mutants of Escherichia coli were isolated by their resistance to the bacteriocidal effects of the membrane-active drugs polymyxin B, levallorphan, and tetracaine. The mutants were examined for additional changes in cellular physiology evoked by the lesions; many polymyxin-resistant strains had a concomitant increased sensitivity to anionic detergents, and several strains of each type had concomitant alterations in generation time and morphology. Mutants of each class (polymyxin resistant, tetracaine resistant, and levallorphan resistant) were transduced into recipient strains. The levallorphan resistance site (lev) was located at approximately 9 min on the E. coli chromosome. Polymyxin (pmx) and tetracaine (tec) resistance loci were also transduced. The lev and tec strains had a slight prolongation of generation time, in contrast with their isogenic wild-type strains. The tec transductant produced long filaments in the absence of tetracaine and had an altered colonial morphology, it reverted at high frequency, with the morphological abnormalities reverting along with the tetracaine resistance. The pmx transductant had an increased sensitivity to levallorphan and to anionic detergents. In contrast, both lev and tec mutants were more resistant to acriflavine than was the wild type or the pmx transductant. The pmx, lev, and tec loci differed in sensitivity to mitomycin C; the lev strain was more resistant, the tec strain was more sensitive, and the pmx strain was much more sensitive than the wild type. There was no difference in sensitivity to several other dyes and detergents, colicins, or T bacteriophage between the transductant and isogenic wild-type strains. Thus, lev, tec, and pmx loci confer more subtle alterations in the permeability barrier than do lipopolysaccharide-deficient mutants previously studied.  (+info)

Opiate receptor: autoradiographic localization in rat brain. (7/26)

Opiate receptor sites in rat brain can be labeled in vivo by [3H]diprenorphine, a potent opiate antagoinst. Using techniques to minimize diffusion in fresh, frozen, unfixed brain, we have localized [3H]diprenorphine by autoradiography to visualize the distribution of opiate receptors. Silver grains indicative of the binding of labeled [3H]diprenorphine are discretely localized in numerous areas of the brain with very high densities in the locus coeruleus, the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord, and in clusters within the caudate-putamen, amygdala, and parts of the periventricular gray matter.  (+info)

Exploration of catalytic properties of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 through metabolic studies of levorphanol and levallorphan. (8/26)