Role of Listeria monocytogenes exotoxins listeriolysin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in activation of human neutrophils.
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential for resolution of infections with Listeria monocytogenes. The present study investigated the role of the listerial exotoxins listeriolysin (LLO) and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA) in human neutrophil activation. Different Listeria strains, mutated in individual virulence genes, as well as purified LLO were used. Coincubation of human neutrophils with wild-type L. monocytogenes provoked PMN activation, occurring independently of phagocytosis events, with concomitant elastase secretion, leukotriene generation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis, respiratory burst, and enhanced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Degranulation and leukotriene formation were noted to be solely dependent on LLO expression, as these features were absent when the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and the avirulent strain L. innocua were used. These effects were fully reproduced by a recombinant L. innocua strain expressing LLO (INN+) and by the purified LLO molecule. LLO secretion was also required for PAF synthesis. However, wild-type L. monocytogenes was more potent in eliciting PAF formation than mutants expressing LLO, suggesting the involvement of additional virulence factors. This was even more obvious for phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst: these events were provoked not only by INN+ but also by the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and by a recombinant L. innocua strain producing listerial PlcA. We conclude that human neutrophils react to extracellularly provided listerial exotoxins by rapid cell activation. Listeriolysin is centrally involved in triggering degranulation and lipid mediator generation, and further virulence factors such as PlcA apparently contribute to trigger neutrophil phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst. In this way, listerial exotoxins may influence the host defense against infections with L. monocytogenes. (+info)
A mechanistic study of self-inactivation of the peroxidase activity in prostaglandin H synthase-1.
Prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) is a self-activating and self-inactivating enzyme. Both the peroxidase and cyclooxygenase activities have a limited number of catalytic turnovers. Sequential stopped-flow measurements were used to analyze the kinetics of PGHS-1 peroxidase self-inactivation during reaction with several different hydroperoxides. The inactivation followed single exponential kinetics, with a first-order rate constant of 0.2-0.5 s-1 at 24 degrees C. This rate was independent of the peroxide species and concentration used, strongly suggesting that the self-inactivation process originates after formation of Compound I and probably with Intermediate II, which contains an oxyferryl heme and a tyrosyl radical. Kinetic scan and rapid scan experiments were used to monitor the heme changes during the inactivation process. The results from both experiments converged to a simple, linear, two-step mechanism in which Intermediate II is first converted in a faster step (0.5-2 s-1) to a new compound, Intermediate III, which undergoes a subsequent slower (0.01-0.05 s-1) transition to a terminal species. Rapid-quench and high pressure liquid chromatography analysis indicated that Intermediate III likely retains an intact heme group that is not covalently linked with the PGHS-1 protein. (+info)
Evidence of a cyclooxygenase-related prostaglandin synthesis in coral. The allene oxide pathway is not involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis.
Certain corals are rich natural sources of prostaglandins, the metabolic origin of which has remained undefined. By analogy with the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase pathway to jasmonic acid in plants, the presence of (8R)-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase in the coral Plexaura homomalla suggested a potential metabolic route to prostaglandins (Brash, A. R., Baertshi, S. W., Ingram, C.D., and Harris, T. M. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 15829-15839). Other evidence, from the Arctic coral Gersemia fruticosa, has indicated a cyclooxygenase intermediate in the biosynthesis (Varvas, K., Koljak, R., Jarving, I., Pehk, T., and Samel, N. (1994) Tetrahedron Lett. 35, 8267-8270). In the present study, active preparations of G. fruticosa have been used to identify both types of arachidonic acid metabolism and specific inhibitors were used to establish the enzyme type involved in the prostaglandin biosynthesis. The synthesis of prostaglandins and (11R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was inhibited by mammalian cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, aspirin, and tolfenamic acid), while the formation of the products of the 8-lipoxygenase/allene oxide pathway was not affected or was increased. The specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, nimesulide, did not inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins in coral. We conclude that coral uses two parallel routes for the initial oxidation of polyenoic acids: the cyclooxygenase route, which leads to optically active prostaglandins, and the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase metabolism, the role of which remains to be established. An enzyme related to mammalian cyclooxygenases is the key to prostaglandin synthesis in coral. Based on our inhibitor data, the catalytic site of this evolutionary early cyclooxygenase appears to differ significantly from both known mammalian cyclooxygenases. (+info)
Exposure of healthy volunteers to swine house dust increases formation of leukotrienes, prostaglandin D2, and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine.
BACKGROUND: Acute exposure of healthy subjects to swine house dust causes increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine but no acute bronchoconstriction. The role of cysteinyl leukotrienes and mast cells in increased bronchial responsiveness is unclear. METHODS: Ten non-asthmatic subjects were exposed to swine dust for three hours while weighing pigs in a piggery. Urine was collected prior to and for up to 12 hours after entering the piggery and at the same times five days before and the day after exposure. As indices of whole body leukotriene production and mast cell activation, urinary levels of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2, the earliest appearing urinary metabolite of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), were measured. Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was determined five days before and the day after the exposure. RESULTS: Methacholine PD20FEV1 decreased from 1.32 mg (95% CI 0.22 to 10.25) before exposure to 0.38 mg (95% CI 0.11 to 1.3) after exposure (p < 0.01). Associated with the increase in bronchial responsiveness there was a significant mean difference between post- and prechallenge levels of LTE4 (difference 38.5 ng/mmol creatinine (95% CI 17.2 to 59.8); p < 0.01) and 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 (difference 69 ng/mmol creatinine (95% CI 3.7 to 134.3); p < 0.05) on the day of exposure to swine dust. Swine dust exposure induced a 24-fold increase in the total cell number and a 12-fold increase in IL-8 levels in the nasal lavage fluid. The levels of LTB4 and LTE4 in nasal lavage fluid following exposure also increased 5.5-fold and 2-fold, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that cysteinyl leukotrienes and other mast cell mediators contribute to the development of increased bronchial responsiveness following inhalation of organic swine dust. (+info)
Leukotriene A synthase activity of purified mouse skin arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase expressed in Escherichia coli.
Mouse skin 8-lipoxygenase was expressed in COS-7 cells by transient transfection of its cDNA in pEF-BOS carrying an elongation factor-1alpha promoter. When crude extract of the transfected COS-7 cells was incubated with arachidonic acid, 8-hydroxy-5,9,11, 14-eicosatetraenoic acid was produced as assessed by reverse- and straight-phase high performance liquid chromatographies. The recombinant enzyme also reacted on alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids at almost the same rate as that with arachidonic acid. Eicosapentaenoic and gamma-linolenic acids were also oxygenated at 43% and 56% reaction rates of arachidonic acid, respectively. In contrast, linoleic acid was a poor substrate for this enzyme. The 8-lipoxygenase reaction with these fatty acids proceeded almost linearly for 40 min. The 8-lipoxygenase was also expressed in an Escherichia coli system using pQE-32 carrying six histidine residues at N-terminal of the enzyme. The expressed enzyme was purified over 380-fold giving a specific activity of approximately 0.2 micromol/45 min per mg protein by nickel-nitrilotriacetate affinity chromatography. The enzymatic properties of the purified 8-lipoxygenase were essentially the same as those of the enzyme expressed in COS-7 cells. When the purified 8-lipoxygenase was incubated with 5-hydroperoxy-6,8,11, 14-eicosatetraenoic acid, two epimers of 6-trans-leukotriene B4, degradation products of unstable leukotriene A4, were observed upon high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, the 8-lipoxygenase catalyzed synthesis of leukotriene A4 from 5-hydroperoxy fatty acid. Reaction rate of the leukotriene A synthase was approximately 7% of arachidonate 8-lipoxygenation. In contrast to the linear time course of 8-lipoxygenase reaction with arachidonic acid, leukotriene A synthase activity leveled off within 10 min, indicating suicide inactivation. (+info)
Interleukin-1 stimulates Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase by an arachidonate-dependent mechanism in mesangial cells.
BACKGROUND: We have studied interleukin-1 (IL-1)-stimulated signals and gene expression in mesangial cells (MCs) to identify molecular mechanisms of MC activation, a process characteristic of glomerular inflammation. The JNK1 pathway has been implicated in cell fate decisions, and IL-1 stimulates the Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK1/SAPK). However, early postreceptor mechanisms by which IL-1 activates these enzymes remain unclear. Free arachidonic acid (AA) activates several protein kinases, and because IL-1 rapidly stimulates phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity release AA, IL-1-induced activation of JNK1/SAPK may be mediated by AA release. METHODS: MCs were grown from collagenase-treated glomeruli, and JNK/SAPK activity in MC lysates was determined using an immunocomplex kinase assay. RESULT: Treatment of MCs with IL-1 alpha induced a time-dependent increase in JNK1/SAPK kinase activity, assessed by phosphorylation of the activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2). Using similar incubation conditions, IL-1 also increased [3H]AA release from MCs. Pretreatment of MCs with aristolochic acid, a PLA2 inhibitor, concordantly reduced IL-1-regulated [3H]AA release and JNK1/SAPK activity, suggesting that cytosolic AA in part mediates IL-1-induced JNK1/SAPK activation. Addition of AA stimulated JNK1/SAPK activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was AA specific, as only AA and its precursor linoleic acid stimulated JNK1/SAPK activity. Other fatty acids failed to activate JNK1/SAPK. Pretreatment of MCs with specific inhibitors of AA oxidation by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase had no effect on either IL-1- or AA-induced JNK1/SAPK activation. Furthermore, stimulation of MCs with the exogenous cyclooxygenase-, lipoxygenase-, phosphodiesterase-, and epoxygenase-derived arachidonate metabolites, in contrast to AA itself, did not activate JNK1/SAPK. CONCLUSION: We conclude that IL-1-stimulated AA release, in part, mediates stimulation of JNK1/SAPK activity and that AA activates JNK1/SAPK by a mechanism that does not require enzymatic oxygenation. JNK1 signaling pathway components may provide molecular switches that mediate structural rearrangements and biochemical processes characteristic of MC activation and could provide a novel target(s) for therapeutic intervention. (+info)
Dynamics of eicosanoids in peripheral blood cells during bronchial provocation in aspirin-intolerant asthmatics.
The underlying mechanisms of bronchoconstriction in aspirin-intolerant asthmatics (AIAs) are still unknown, but the hypothesis of an altered metabolism of arachidonic acid is generally accepted. So far, no in vitro test for aspirin intolerance is available. The hypothesis that the profile of eicosanoid mediators is changed in AIA-even before aspirin challenge was tested. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), peptidoleukotrienes and histamine was measured using competitive enzyme immunoassays in 10 asthmatics with a history of aspirin intolerance, 10 controls and eight aspirin-tolerant asthmatics (ATAs) before and after bronchial provocation with lysine-aspirin. Comparing basal release of eicosanoids before challenge, peptidoleukotrienes were significantly elevated and PGE2 was vastly reduced in AIAs, whereas ATAs had elevated basal peptidoleukotrienes but only slightly reduced basal PGE2. The decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was not associated with changes in histamine release. After aspirin challenge, there was a massive increase of already elevated peptidoleukotrienes in AIAs, but not in ATAs. Arachidonic acid-induced PGE2 release in AIAs was not significantly changed, whereas it was significantly reduced in ATAs and healthy controls. Histamine release was unaffected by aspirin challenge in all three groups. There is a typically altered profile of eicosanoids in aspirin-intolerant asthmatics which could make in vitro diagnosis of aspirin intolerance possible. (+info)
Ischemia-reperfusion induced microvascular responses in LDL-receptor -/- mice.
The objective of this study was to determine whether the microvascular responses to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) are altered in an animal model of atherosclerosis, the low-density lipoprotein-receptor knockout (LDLr -/-) mouse. Intravital video microscopy was used to monitor venular wall shear rate, leukocytes rolling velocity, the number of rolling, adherent and emigrated leukocytes, and albumin leakage in cremasteric postcapillary venules of wild-type (B6129) and LDLr -/- mice exposed to 60 min of ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. The postcapillary venules of LDLr -/- mice exhibited two- to threefold larger increments in the number of adherent leukocytes and a more profound albumin leakage response to I/R than venules in wild-type mice. The exaggerated inflammatory responses noted in LDLr -/- mice placed on a normal diet were not exacerbated by a high-cholesterol diet. Treatment of LDLr -/- mice with either a platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist (WEB-2086) or a monoclonal antibody (YN-1) against the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), markedly attenuated the I/R-induced leukocyte adherence and albumin leakage. These findings indicate that atherogenic mice are more vulnerable to the deleterious microvascular effects of I/R and that PAF-mediated, ICAM-1-dependent leukocyte adhesion contributes to this exaggerated response to I/R. (+info)