Effects of inhaled furosemide on platelet-activating factor challenge in mild asthma.
Furosemide (Fur) may have an anti-inflammatory effect on airways in patients with asthma although its intrinsic mechanism remains elusive. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent proinflammatory mediator that induces systemic and respiratory effects in normal control subjects and asthmatics. The aim of this study was to assess whether pretreatment with nebulized Fur (40 mg) was able to modulate PAF-induced systemic and respiratory effects in asthma. Eleven patients were studied (mean+/-sem 22+/-0.8 yrs) with mild asthma (forced expiratory volume in one second, 95+/-4%) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over fashion, one week apart. PAF challenge (18 microg) was carried out 15 min after administration of Fur or placebo. Peripheral blood neutrophils, respiratory system resistance, and arterial blood gases were measured at baseline, and 5, 15 and 45 min after PAF; urinary cysteinyl leukotriene E4 (uLTE4) was also measured, at baseline and 120 min after PAF challenge. Although Fur did not alter PAF-induced systemic and respiratory effects, it did partially inhibit (63%; p<0.04) the increments of uLTE4 levels shown after PAF inhalation. It is concluded that furosemide is not effective in protecting against platelet-activating factor challenge in patients with asthma despite its potential inhibition of leukotriene synthesis. These findings reinforce the view that the pulmonary effects of platelet-activating factor are mediated through different pathways. (+info)
Inhibition by troglitazone of the antigen-induced production of leukotrienes in immunoglobulin E-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells.
1. The effect of troglitazone, an anti-diabetic drug with insulin-sensitizing action, on antigen-induced production of leukotriene (LT) B(4), C(4) and E(4) and prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) was examined in dinitrophenol (DNP)-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE)-sensitized RBL-2H3 mast cells following stimulation by the antigen, DNP-conjugated human serum albumin. Levels of LTB(4), C(4) and E(4) and PGD(2) in the conditioned medium were enzyme-immunoassayed. 2. Troglitazone inhibited the antigen-induced production of LTB(4), C(4) and E(4) and the potency of the inhibition was comparable to that of zileuton, a specific inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and a clinically used anti-asthmatic drug. Neither troglitazone nor zileuton affected antigen-induced production of PGD(2), arachidonic acid release from membrane phospholipids and degranulation. 3. Troglitazone inhibited LTB(4) production by the supernatant fraction of RBL-2H3 cell lysate with similar potency to zileuton, suggesting that troglitazone inhibits LT production by direct inhibition of 5-LOX activity. 4. Furthermore, it was shown that troglitazone as well as zileuton inhibited LTB(4) production in A23187-stimulated rat peritoneal neutrophils. 5. These findings suggest that troglitazone inhibits antigen-induced LT production in the IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells and A23187-stimulated rat peritoneal neutrophils by direct inhibition of 5-LOX activity. (+info)
A role for leukotrienes in cyclosporine nephrotoxicity.
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity associated with cyclosporine A (CsA) administration is characterized by marked renal vasoconstriction, interstitial fibrosis, and arteriolar hypertrophy. While the molecular mechanisms of CsA toxicity are not well characterized, previous studies have demonstrated that altered arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism plays a role its pathogenesis. Using a rat renal transplant model, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CsA on the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway of AA metabolism. METHODS: The PVG (RT1c) strain of rats underwent kidney transplantation, and recipients of nonrejecting kidney transplants were treated with either 50 mg/kg/day CsA or vehicle (N = 24). To determine the physiologic significance of increased leukotriene (LT) production, the peptidoleukotriene receptor antagonist SKF 106203 was administered to CsA-treated animals for six days. RESULTS: CsA caused a substantial reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the transplanted rats compared with the vehicle-treated controls (1.5 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.8 mL/min/kg, P < 0.05). The reduction in renal function was associated with enhanced urinary excretion of the peptidoleukotriene metabolites LTE4 (1431 +/- 207 vs. 953 +/- 125 pg/24 h, P < 0.05) and N-acetyl-LTE4 (4411 +/- 848 vs. 463 +/- 70 pg/24 h, P < 0.001). LT receptor blockade had a significant protective effect on renal transplant function in CsA-treated animals (GFR, 4.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.9 mL/min/kg, P < 0.05), such that CsA-treated animals that received SKF106203 maintained GFR at levels similar to controls that never received CsA (4.1 +/- 0.8 mL/min/kg). Peptidoleukotriene receptor blockade also prevented the histomorphological abnormalities caused by CsA, including tubular vacuolization. CONCLUSIONS: These studies identify a critical role for LTs in the pathophysiology of CsA nephrotoxicity and suggest that LT antagonists may be useful in preventing CsA-associated kidney toxicity. (+info)
Characterization of the human cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor.
The contractile and inflammatory actions of the cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4), are thought to be mediated through at least two distinct but related CysLT G protein-coupled receptors. The human CysLT(1) receptor has been recently cloned and characterized. We describe here the cloning and characterization of the second cysteinyl leukotriene receptor, CysLT(2), a 346-amino acid protein with 38% amino acid identity to the CysLT(1) receptor. The recombinant human CysLT(2) receptor was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293T cells and shown to couple to elevation of intracellular calcium when activated by LTC(4), LTD(4), or LTE(4). Analyses of radiolabeled LTD(4) binding to the recombinant CysLT(2) receptor demonstrated high affinity binding and a rank order of potency for competition of LTC(4) = LTD(4) LTE(4). In contrast to the dual CysLT(1)/CysLT(2) antagonist, BAY u9773, the CysLT(1) receptor-selective antagonists MK-571, montelukast (Singulair(TM)), zafirlukast (Accolate(TM)), and pranlukast (Onon(TM)) exhibited low potency in competition for LTD(4) binding and as antagonists of CysLT(2) receptor signaling. CysLT(2) receptor mRNA was detected in lung macrophages and airway smooth muscle, cardiac Purkinje cells, adrenal medulla cells, peripheral blood leukocytes, and brain, and the receptor gene was mapped to chromosome 13q14, a region linked to atopic asthma. (+info)
Oral and bronchial provocation tests with aspirin for diagnosis of aspirin-induced asthma.
In 35 asthmatic patients with acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) intolerance (AIA) and 15 asthmatics tolerating ASA well, the authors compared the diagnostic value of the placebo-controlled oral ASA versus inhaled L-lysine (L) ASA challenges. All AIA subjects gave a history of asthmatic attacks following ingestion of ASA and in all of them the intolerance was confirmed by oral challenge test over the past 10 yrs. Doses of ASA increasing in geometric progression were used in oral tests 10-312 mg (cumulative dose 500 mg); in bronchial tests 0.18-115 mg (cumulative dose 182 mg). Either challenge was considered as positive, if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) dropped at least 20% from the baseline value and/or strong extrabronchial symptoms of intolerance occurred. Urinary leukotriene E4 excretion was determined at baseline and following the challenges. In 24 out of 35 patients the oral test was positive, based on a 20% decrease in FEV1. When including extrabronchial symptoms this was positive in 31 cases. Bronchial L-ASA challenge led to > or =20% fall FEV1 in 21 out of 35 cases, and in 27 cases when including extrabronchial symptoms. No correlation was observed between ASA provocative dose causing a 20% fall in FEV1, determined by the oral route compared to the inhalation route. Urinary LTE4 increased after both challenges the rise being higher following oral as compared to inhalation provocation (p=0.0001). It is concluded that both tests had similar specificity whilst the oral test showed a tendency to higher sensitivity for the clinical diagnosis of acetylsalicylic acid intolerance. The inclusion of extrabronchial symptoms into the criteria of test positivity enhanced the diagnostic value of both procedures. In both tests the highest leukotriene E4 increases were found in the presence of extrabronchial symptoms, suggesting the participation of tissues other than the lung in aspirin induced leukotriene E4 release to urine. (+info)
Inhaled budesonide inhibits OVA-induced airway narrowing, inflammation, and cys-LT synthesis in BN rats.
The objective of the present investigation was to examine the effects of an inhaled glucocorticoid, budesonide, on antigen-induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) and pulmonary inflammatory cell infiltration in the Brown Norway rat, an animal model of asthma. Two weeks after sensitization to ovalbumin, rats were treated with budesonide (2.5 mg/kg) 18 and 1 h before challenge with antigen. Budesonide abolished the late response to ovalbumin (P<0.02) and strongly inhibited the in vivo synthesis of N-acetyl-leukotriene E(4), an indicator of cys-LT synthesis, during this period (P<0.005). Both total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells (P<0.01) and BAL macrophages (P<0.005) were markedly reduced to approximately 25% of their control levels after treatment with budesonide. It can be concluded that inhibition of the antigen-induced late response in Brown Norway rats by budesonide is associated with reductions in both BAL macrophages and cys-LT synthesis. It is possible that the effect of budesonide on cys-LT synthesis is related to its effects on pulmonary macrophages. (+info)
Urinary excretion of leukotriene E4 and eosinophil protein X in children with atopic asthma.
Measurement of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) in urine is a noninvasive method for assessing changes in the rate of total body cysteinyl leukotriene production. Eosinophil protein X (EPX) has been used to assess eosinophil activity and monitor inflammation in bronchial asthma. The aim of the study was to look for differences in urinary LTE4 and EPX concentrations between children with stable atopic asthma and healthy controls and to compare asthmatic children with different disease severity. In addition the relationship was evaluated between urinary LTE4 and EPX levels and lung function. LTE4 was also measured (enzyme immunoassay) together with EPX (radioimmunoassay) in urine and lung function tests were carried out in children with mild asthma (steroid-naive) (n=49), moderate to severe asthma (using inhaled steroids) (n=31) and healthy control subjects (n=28). Urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) was significantly higher in children with asthma than in controls (median [25-75 percentile] 238.5 (126.5-375.7) SD 191.8 versus 189 (51-253.2) SD 131.7 pg.mg(-1) creatinine; p=0.021). Urinary EPX was also significantly increased in asthmatic children compared with controls (85.5 [64-131.5] SD 76.2 versus 48.5 [43.2-90] 112.1 microg x mmol(-1) creatinine; p=0.006). There were no differences in urinary LTE4 and EPX between the group of mild and the group of moderate to severe asthmatic children. There were significant associations between the urinary LTE4 and intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV), residual volume (RV), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory capacity (FVC) and maximum expiratory flow rate at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25). Urinary EPX was only correlated with maximum expiratory flow rate at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75). Thus measurement of urinary LTE4 may predict the degree of airflow obstruction in asthmatic children. Urinary LTE4 and EPX are useful markers of airway inflammation and can be helpful in guiding asthma management. There was no correlation between LTE4 and EPX levels. (+info)
Eosinophil influx into the airways in patients with exercise-induced asthma.
Exercise-induced asthma is a common phenomenon, the mechanism of which is undetermined. Eosinophils have been suggested as playing a role in its occurrence. We studied the effect of exercise-induced asthma on the cellular and mediator composition of spontaneously obtained sputum. Twenty-five patients with bronchial asthma were investigated by studying sputum spontaneously obtained before and following challenge. One group with (n=9) and one without (n=9) exercise-induced asthma performed exercise challenge. A third group (n=7) performed methacholine challenge. The sputum was analysed using Giemsa staining for differential cell count, measuring eosinophil cationic proteins and mixtures of leukotrienes (D4, E4 and C4) in the liquid phase using ELISA. The group with exercise-induced asthma had a mean drop of 23.7+/-7.4% in FEV1, significantly (P=0.001) higher than the group without it. Following challenges, there were significant increases in sputum eosinophils only in the group with exercise-induced asthma (from 8.1+/-13.9% to 18.3+/-20.2%, P=0.0017) and not in control groups (from 0.9+/-0.9% to 1.5+/-15%) or in those who had methacholine challenge (from 23.6+/-27.2% to 22.3+/-23.8%). Eosinophil cationic proteins did not change significantly in any group. In the liquid phase of the sputum, the amount of leukotrienes increased following exercise in six of the seven patients with exercise-induced asthma in whom it was measured. The influx of eosinophils to the airway in patients who develop exercise-induced asthma can be partially explained by the leukotrienes in the airways of those patients. (+info)