Mediators of anaphylaxis but not activated neutrophils augment cholinergic responses of equine small airways.
Neutrophilic inflammation in small airways (SA) and bronchospasm mediated via muscarinic receptors are features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in horses (COPD). Histamine, serotonin, and leukotrienes (LTs) are reported to be involved in the exacerbation of COPD, and currently, histamine has been shown to increase tension response to electrical field simulation (EFS) in equine SA. We tested the effects of these mediators and the effects of activated neutrophils on the cholinergic responses in SA. Histamine, serotonin, and LTD4 had a synergistic effect on EFS responses and only an additive effect on the tension response to exogenous ACh or methacholine. Atropine and TTX entirely eliminated the EFS-induced tension response in the presence of all three inflammatory mediators, indicating that augmentation of the EFS response applies only to the endogenous cholinergic response. Neutrophils isolated from control and COPD-affected horses were activated by zymosan, producing 18.1 +/- 2.3 and 25.0 +/- 2.3 nmol superoxide. 10(6) cells-1. 30 min-1, respectively. However, in contrast to the profound effect of mediators, incubation of SA for over 1 h in a suspension of up to 30 x 10(6) zymosan-treated neutrophils/ml did not significantly affect EFS responses of SA isolated from either control or COPD-affected horses. We conclude that in equine SA 1) the endogenous cholinergic responses are subject to strong facilitation by inflammatory mediators; 2) activated neutrophils do not affect cholinergic responses in SA; and 3) in acute bouts of equine COPD, histamine, LTD4, and serotonin (mediators primarily associated with type I allergic reaction) rather than mediators derived from neutrophils most likely contribute to increased cholinergic airway tone. (+info)
Pre- and postjunctional effects of inflammatory mediators in horse airways.
In addition to their direct contractile effects, histamine (Hist), serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], and leukotriene (LT) D(4), in low concentrations, dramatically augment electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced smooth muscle contractions in equine airways. To determine the mechanism of their action, we studied, in trachealis strips, the effect of these mediators on both cholinergically induced tension and the release of ACh from cholinergic nerves. All three mediators synergistically augmented the contraction of the trachealis that was due to release of endogenous ACh, i.e., EFS-induced contraction. These same mediators caused only a small but parallel shift of the ACh concentration-response curve. Comparison of the mediator effects on the responses to endogenous and exogenous ACh suggested a prejunctional effect. However, release of ACh was augmented only by Hist and 5-HT but not by LTD(4). Hist-induced contraction of trachealis was abolished by pyrilamine (H(1)-receptor antagonist) but not by ranitidine (H(2)-receptor antagonist), whereas thioperamide (H(3)-receptor antagonist) shifted the Hist response curve to the left. The augmenting effect of Hist on EFS-induced contraction was abolished by pyrilamine and unaffected by ranitidine or thioperamide. We conclude that inflammatory mediators can increase endogenous cholinergic responses of equine airways via both prejunctional and postjunctional mechanisms. LTD(4) acts solely on smooth muscle, whereas 5-HT and Hist additionally act on neuronal receptors to facilitate release of ACh. Excitatory effects of Hist, i.e., direct contractile effect, and augmentation of endogenous cholinergic response are both mediated via H(1) receptors, whereas the inhibitory H(3) receptors partially oppose the direct contractile effect of this mediator. (+info)
Identification, molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor.
The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders, in particular asthma, for which the CysLT receptor antagonists pranlukast, zafirlukast, and montelukast, have been introduced recently as novel therapeutics. Here we report on the molecular cloning, expression, localization, and pharmacological characterization of a CysLT receptor (CysLTR), which was identified by ligand fishing of orphan seven-transmembrane-spanning, G protein-coupled receptors. This receptor, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells responded selectively to the individual CysLTs, LTC(4), LTD(4), or LTE(4), with a calcium mobilization response; the rank order potency was LTD(4) (EC(50) = 2.5 nM) > LTC(4) (EC(50) = 24 nM) > LTE(4) (EC(50) = 240 nM). Evidence was provided that LTE(4) is a partial agonist at this receptor. [(3)H]LTD(4) binding and LTD(4)-induced calcium mobilization in HEK-293 cells expressing the CysLT receptor were potently inhibited by the structurally distinct CysLTR antagonists pranlukast, montelukast, zafirlukast, and pobilukast; the rank order potency was pranlukast = zafirlukast > montelukast > pobilukast. LTD(4)-induced calcium mobilization in HEK-293 cells expressing the CysLT receptor was not affected by pertussis toxin, and the signal appears to be the result of the release from intracellular stores. Localization studies indicate the expression of this receptor in several tissues, including human lung, human bronchus, and human peripheral blood leukocytes. The discovery of this receptor, which has characteristics of the purported CysLT(1) receptor subtype, should assist in the elucidation of the pathophysiological roles of the CysLTs and in the identification of additional receptor subtypes. (+info)
Antigen-induced airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness does not enhance airway responses to a subsequent antigen challenge in rats.
Brown-Norway (BN) rats develop airway hyper-responsiveness and lung eosinophilia 18-24 h after ovalbumin (OA) challenge. We hypothesized therefore that allergen-induced airway inflammation would further enhance airway responses to a subsequent antigen challenge. Animals were sensitized to both OA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and, 14 days later, challenged by aerosols with both antigens 24 h apart. Measurements of pulmonary resistance (RL) were made for 8 h after the second antigen challenge and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. Animals were divided into three groups and received two challenges as follows: saline-BSA (n=9), OA-saline (n=8) and OA-BSA (n=10). Sensitization was confirmed by measurements of specific OA-IgE and BSA-IgE. Early responses [determined as the highest value of RL within the first 30 min after the challenge] were absent in all study groups. The late responses [determined from the area under the RL versus time curve from 120 to 480 min after the challenge] were significantly greater in animals challenged with BSA (15.16+/-3.86) compared to saline (3.76+/-4.09; P<0.05). However previous exposure to OA did not further increase the late response in animals subsequently challenged with BSA (20.11+/-3.67) despite enhanced airway responsiveness to LTD4 at this time point. BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes were significantly increased following BSA challenge in previously OA-challenged animals, compared to numbers retrieved from animals previously exposed to saline (P<0.05). These data indicate that previous exposure to OA did not further increase the LR to a second antigen challenge despite substantial increases in airway inflammatory cells and airway hyper-responsiveness to LTD4. (+info)
Leukotriene D(4) triggers an association between gbetagamma subunits and phospholipase C-gamma1 in intestinal epithelial cells.
The proinflammatory mediator leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4)) binds to the seven-transmembrane receptor CYSLT(1). Although this leukotriene plays an important biological role, its intracellular signaling pathways are only partly known. In previous experiments, we found that LTD(4) induced tyrosine phosphorylation and translocation of phospholipase (PLC)-gamma1 to a plasma membrane fraction in a human epithelial cell line (Int 407). In the present study, we further examined these signaling events and found that LTD(4) induced a rapid interaction between Gbetagamma subunits and PLC-gamma1; results obtained with GST fusion proteins of PLC-gamma1 suggest that this interaction is mediated via the pleckstrin homology domain of PLC-gamma1. Moreover, LTD(4) induced an increased association of c-Src with PLC-gamma1, and the selective Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 blocked both LTD(4)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 and the association of PLC-gamma1 with Gbetagamma subunits. The relevance of these observations in intracellular calcium signaling was investigated by microinjecting cells with anti-Gbeta, anti-PLC-gamma1, or anti-c-Src antibodies and by pretreatment with PP1. LTD(4)-induced calcium mobilization was blocked by each of the indicated antibodies (but not isotype-matched control antibodies) and by PP1. Our data suggest that Gbetagamma subunits can, directly or indirectly, serve as membrane-bound partners for PLC-gamma1 and c-Src and that each of these proteins is essential for LTD(4)-induced downstream PLC-gamma1 signaling. (+info)
SB 239063, a potent p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, reduces inflammatory cytokine production, airways eosinophil infiltration, and persistence.
The anti-inflammatory/antiallergic activity of a novel second-generation p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SB 239063[trans-1-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl) -4-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(2-methoxypyridimidin-4-yl)imidazole], was investigated in vivo and in vitro. SB 239063 had an IC(50) of 44 nM for inhibition of recombinant purified human p38alpha. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes, SB 239063 inhibited interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production (IC(50) values = 0.12 and 0.35 microM, respectively). A role for p38 kinase in cytokine-associated inflammation in the mouse was shown by p38 activation in the lung and inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by SB 239063 (ED(50) = 5.8 mg/kg p.o.). Antiallergic activity was demonstrated by essential abolition (approximately 93% inhibition) of inhaled ovalbumin (OA)-induced airway eosinophilia by SB 239063 (12 mg/kg p.o.), measured by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in OA-sensitized mice. In addition, p38 kinase was found by Western analysis to be activated in guinea pig lung. Administration of SB 239063 (10 or 30 mg/kg p.o.) in conscious guinea pigs markedly reduced ( approximately 50% inhibition) OA-induced pulmonary eosinophil influx, measured by BAL 24 h after antigen. SB 239063 (10 mg/kg b.i.d. p.o.) administered after leukotriene D(4) inhalation, reduced by 60% the persistent airway eosinophilia seen at 4 days. Apoptosis of cultured eosinophils isolated from guinea pig BAL was increased by SB 239063 (1-10 microM) in the presence of interleukin-5. These results indicate that SB 239063 is a potent inhibitor of inflammatory cytokine production, inhibits eosinophil recruitment, in addition to enhancing apoptosis of these cells. Collectively, the results support the potential utility of p38 kinase inhibitors, such as SB 239063, for the treatment of asthma and other inflammatory disorders. (+info)
Inhibition of allergic late airway responses by inhaled heparin-derived oligosaccharides.
Inhaled heparin has been shown to inhibit allergic bronchoconstriction in sheep that develop only acute responses to antigen (acute responders) but was ineffective in sheep that develop both acute and late airway responses (LAR) (dual responders). Because the antiallergic activity of heparin is molecular-weight dependent, we hypothesized that heparin-derived oligosaccharides (<2, 500) with potential anti-inflammatory activity may attenuate the LAR in the dual-responder sheep. Specific lung resistance was measured in 24 dual-responder sheep before and serially for 8 h after challenge with Ascaris suum antigen for demonstration of early airway response (EAR) and LAR, without and after treatment with inhaled medium-, low-, and ultralow-molecular-weight (ULMW) heparins and "non-anticoagulant" fractions (NAF) of heparin. Airway responsiveness was estimated before and 24 h postantigen as the cumulative provocating dose of carbachol that increased specific lung resistance by 400%. Only ULMW heparins caused a dose-dependent inhibition of antigen-induced EAR and LAR and postantigen airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), whereas low- and medium-molecular-weight heparins were ineffective. The effects of ULMW heparin and ULMW NAF-heparin were comparable and inhibited the LAR and AHR even when administered "after" the antigen challenge. The ULMW NAF-heparin failed to inhibit the bronchoconstrictor response to histamine, carbachol, and leukotriene D(4), excluding a direct effect on airway smooth muscle. In six sheep, segmental antigen challenge caused a marked increase in bronchoalveolar lavage histamine, which was not prevented by inhaled ULMW NAF-heparin. The results of this study in the dual-responder sheep demonstrate that 1) the antiallergic activity of inhaled "fractionated" heparins is molecular-weight dependent, 2) only ULMW heparins inhibit the antigen-induced EAR and LAR and postantigen AHR, and 3) the antiallergic activity is mediated by nonanticoagulant fractions and resides in the ULMW chains of <2,500. (+info)
A kinetic binding study to evaluate the pharmacological profile of a specific leukotriene C(4) binding site not coupled to contraction in human lung parenchyma.
We report the identification of a novel pharmacological profile for the leukotriene (LT)C(4) binding site we previously identified in human lung parenchyma (HLP). We used a series of classic cysteinyl-LT (CysLT)(1) receptor antagonists belonging to different chemical classes and the dual CysLT(1)-CysLT(2) antagonist BAY u9773 for both binding and functional studies. Because the presence of (S)-decyl-glutathione interfered with cysteinyl-LT binding, with a kinetic protocol we avoided the use of this compound. By means of heterologous dissociation time courses, we demonstrated that zafirlukast, iralukast, and BAY u9773 selectively competed only for (3)H-LTD(4) binding sites, whereas pobilukast, pranlukast, and CGP 57698 dissociated both (3)H-LTC(4) and (3)H-LTD(4) from their binding sites. Thus, with binding studies, we have been able to identify a pharmacological profile for LTC(4) distinct from that of LTD(4) receptor (CysLT(1)) in HLP. On the contrary, in functional studies, all of the classic antagonists tested were able to revert both LTC(4)- and LTD(4)-induced contractions of isolated HLP strips. Thus, LTD(4) and LTC(4) contract isolated HLP strips through the same CysLT(1) receptor. The results of kinetic binding studies, coupled to a sophisticated data analysis, confirm our hypothesis that HLP membranes contain two cysteinyl-LT high-affinity binding sites with different pharmacological profiles. In functional studies, however, LTD(4)- and LTC(4)-induced contractions are mediated by the same CysLT(1) receptor. In conclusion, the specific LTC(4) high-affinity binding site cannot be classified as one of the officially recognized CysLT receptors, and it is not implicated in LTC(4)-induced HLP strip contractions. (+info)