Effect of the leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast on cellular infiltration in the bronchial mucosa of patients with asthma.
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that pranlukast reduces the antigen induced immediate and late phase asthmatic responses, airway hyperreactivity to acetylcholine, and pulmonary eosinophil accumulation in guinea pigs. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that pranlukast may reduce the number of inflammatory cells in the bronchial mucosa of patients with asthma. METHODS: A double blind, placebo controlled study was performed in 17 mild to moderate asthmatic subjects to examine changes in inflammatory cell infiltration in response to pranlukast (225 mg orally twice per day for four weeks). Comparisons of the mean daily beta 2 agonist use, symptom score, FEV1 percentage predicted, and airway methacholine responsiveness were made before and after treatment. Using fibreoptic bronchoscopy, bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained before and after treatment with either pranlukast (n = 10) or placebo (n = 7). Immunohistology was performed using monoclonal antibodies for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, NP57, AA1, EG1, EG2, gamma GTP and CD19. RESULTS: When the pranlukast and placebo treated groups were compared there were decreases in beta 2 agonist use, symptom score, and airway methacholine responsiveness after pranlukast but no increase in FEV1 was seen. The clinical response in patients treated with pranlukast was accompanied by a reduction in CD3 (median difference -37, 95% confidence interval (CI) -69 to -1; p < 0.05), CD4 (median difference -28, 95% CI -49 to -8; p < 0.01), AA1 (median difference -15, 95% CI -26 to 0; p < 0.05) and EG2 positive cells (95% CI -35 to 0; p < 0.05), but not in EG1 positive eosinophils, gamma GTP positive cells, and CD19 positive plasma cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the view that pranlukast may act by inhibition of bronchial inflammation in patients with asthma. (+info)
Lack of effect of zafirlukast on the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin in healthy volunteers.
This randomized, open-label, crossover study was conducted to investigate whether the coadministration of zafirlukast would affect the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin, clarithromycin, or 14-hydroxyclarithromycin (14-OHC). Twelve healthy subjects (six males and six females) received single 500-mg doses of azithromycin and clarithromycin with and without zafirlukast given to a steady-state concentration. Blood was collected prior to all macrolide doses and for 3 and 10 days after each clarithromycin and azithromycin dose, respectively. Serum was assayed for azithromycin, clarithromycin, and 14-OHC concentrations by validated high-performance liquid chromatography assay systems. Data analyses were done by noncompartmental and nonparametric methods. Analysis of the patients indicated that the addition of steady-state concentrations of zafirlukast did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters of or overall exposure (based on the area under the concentration-time curve) to azithromycin, clarithromycin, and 14-OHC. While zafirlukast is a known inhibitor of CYP3A4, it does not appear to exert a clinically or statistically significant pharmacokinetic effect on azithromycin, clarithromycin, or 14-OHC. (+info)
Pulmonary eosinophilia associated with montelukast.
Antileukotriene drugs are new therapeutic agents that have recently been approved for the treatment of asthma. Several cases of eosinophilic conditions including Churg-Strauss syndrome have been reported to be associated with zafirlukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor antagonist. So far no other leukotriene modifier has been associated with the syndrome. The case history is presented of a man with allergic rhinitis and asthma who had received intermittent pulse therapy with oral corticosteroids. Pulmonary eosinophilia developed while he was receiving treatment with montelukast, a chemically distinct cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor antagonist. After discontinuation of montelukast therapy and administration of systemic corticosteroids the patient's symptoms reversed rapidly and there was prompt resolution of the pulmonary infiltrates. We believe that cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor antagonists are safe and effective drugs for most patients with asthma but caution is needed for those with more severe disease who require systemic corticosteroids, especially if they show characteristics of the atypical allergic diathesis seen in the prodromal phase of Churg-Strauss syndrome. (+info)
New treatments for allergic rhinitis.
OBJECTIVE: To review new treatments for allergic rhinitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most studies supporting the principles in this paper are double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Good evidence supports use of antihistamines, nasal steroid sprays, and immunotherapy. Fewer trials have been done on the new antileukotrienes. MAIN MESSAGE: Allergic rhinitis causes significant morbidity, which can be successfully treated. Newer antihistamines, developed to replace terfenadine and astemizole which have potential side effects, include loratadine, cetirizine, and the newest, fexofenadine. Intranasal steroid sprays are also effective, particularly for people with nasal stuffiness. One study showed some growth retardation in children using beclomethasone over a prolonged period (1 year). The newer steroid sprays, such as fluticasone, budesonide, and mometasone furoate aqueous, however, have not been studied in the same way and are usually recommended for shorter periods. The newest group of medications showing real promise are the antileukotrienes, including zafirlukast and montelukast. Taken orally, these medications avoid the discomfort of nasal sprays and seem to have few side effects. Immunotherapy offers a new option: a short-course, preseasonal series of six to 11 injections that reduces the burden on patients for year-round therapy. Combinations of these therapies are also possible. CONCLUSIONS: With new medications and immunotherapy options, family physicians can offer effective treatment to patients with allergic rhinitis. (+info)
Randomised, placebo controlled trial of effect of a leukotriene receptor antagonist, montelukast, on tapering inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic patients.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, to allow tapering of inhaled corticosteroids in clinically stable asthmatic patients. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, parallel group study. After a single blind placebo run in period, during which (at most) two inhaled corticosteroids dose decreases occurred, qualifying, clinically stable patients were allocated randomly to receive montelukast (10 mg tablet) or matching placebo once daily at bedtime for up to 12 weeks. SETTING: 23 academic asthma centres in United States, Canada, and Europe. PARTICIPANTS: 226 clinically stable patients with chronic asthma receiving high doses of inhaled corticosteroids (113 randomised to montelukast and 113 to placebo). INTERVENTIONS: Every 2 weeks, the inhaled corticosteroids dose was tapered, maintained, or increased (rescue) based on a standardised clinical score. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Last tolerated dose of inhaled corticosteroids. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, montelukast allowed significant (P=0. 046) reduction in the inhaled corticosteroid dose (montelukast 47% v placebo 30%; least square mean difference 17.6%, 95% confidence interval 0.3 to 34.8). Fewer patients on montelukast (18 (16%) v 34 (30%) placebo, P=0.01) required discontinuation because of failed rescue. CONCLUSIONS: Montelukast reduces the need for inhaled corticosteroids among patients requiring moderate to high doses of corticosteroid to maintain asthma control. (+info)
Effects of lipid mediator antagonists on predominant mediator-controlled asthmatic reactions in passively sensitized guinea pigs.
The role of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) in guinea pig models of aspects of bronchial asthma was investigated. In a novel antigen (BSA)-induced asthmatic model using passively sensitized guinea pigs, pretreatment with varying doses of indomethacin controlled the ratio of followed lipid mediators, LTC(4)/D(4)/E(4) and TXB(2), in lungs of challenged guinea pigs. The predominant mediator in indomethacin-untreated asthma was TXA(2), and complete inhibition of cyclooxygenase by i.v. injection of 5-mg/kg indomethacin-induced cys-LTs mainly mediated asthmatic response. Furthermore, a 1-mg/kg indomethacin dose induced an asthmatic state where both cys-LTs and TXA(2) equally participated. Either LTD(4) or TXA(2) receptor antagonists given alone inhibited the asthmatic response in conditions where the corresponding mediator plays a predominant role. The combination of LTD(4) and TXA(2) receptor antagonists exhibited significant effects irrespective of the condition used. Under conditions where both mediators equally participate, a combination of both receptor antagonists showed additive inhibition. YM158, a newly synthesized and orally active dual antagonist for LTD(4) and TXA(2) receptors, showed the same antiasthmatic effect as a combinated LTD(4) receptor antagonist and a TXA(2) receptor antagonist mixture. Therefore, broad-acting compounds such as YM158 are expected to have antiasthmatic efficacies in a broader class of asthmatic patients than single-acting drugs. (+info)
Montelukast reduces airway eosinophilic inflammation in asthma: a randomized, controlled trial.
Leukotrienes are pro-inflammatory mediators which may contribute to tissue, sputum, and blood eosinophilia seen in allergic and inflammatory diseases, including asthma. Montelukast is a cysteinyl leukotriene1 (CysLT1) receptor antagonist which improves asthma control; the aim of this study was to investigate its effect on induced sputum eosinophils. Montelukast 10 mg (n=19) or placebo (n=21) were administered orally once in the evening for 4 weeks to 40 chronic adult asthmatic patients, aged 19-64 yrs, in a double-blind, randomized, parallel group study. Patients were included if, at prestudy, they had >5% sputum eosinophils, symptomatic asthma with a forced expiratory volume in one second > or =65% of the predicted value and were being treated only with "as needed" inhaled beta2-agonists. In addition to sputum eosinophils, blood eosinophils and clinical endpoints were also assessed. Four weeks of montelukast treatment decreased sputum eosinophils from 7.5% to 3.9% (3.6% decrease, 95% confidence interval (CI) -16.6-0.4). In contrast, placebo treatment was associated with an increase in sputum eosinophils from 14.5% to 17.9% (3.4% increase, 95% CI -3.5-9.8). The least squares mean difference between groups (-11.3%, 95% CI -21.1-(-1.4)) was significant (p=0.026). Compared with placebo, montelukast significantly reduced blood eosinophils (p=0.009), asthma symptoms (p=0.001) and beta2-agonist use (p<0.001) while significantly increasing morning peak expiratory flow (p=0.001). Montelukast was generally well tolerated in this study, with a safety profile similar to the placebo. These results demonstrate that montelukast decreases airway eosinophilic inflammation in addition to improving clinical parameters. Its efficacy in the treatment of chronic asthma may be due, in part, to the effect on airway inflammation. (+info)
What are minimal important changes for asthma measures in a clinical trial?
In this study, the perceptions of asthmatics to change in their disease was associated with observed changes in clinical asthma measures, in order to identify the threshold where changes in clinical asthma measures are perceivable by patients. The study included 281 asthmatic patients, aged 18-63 yrs, in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a leukotriene antagonist. Changes were related in: 1) asthma symptom scores; 2) inhaled beta-agonist use; 3) forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1); and 4) peak expiratory flow (PEF) to a global question that queried overall change in asthma since starting the study drug. Additional analyses examined differences in the group reporting minimal improvement by treatment (active treatment versus placebo), sex and age groups. The average minimal patient perceivable improvement for each measure was: 1) -0.31 points for the symptom score on a scale of 0-6; 2) -0.81 puffs x day(-1) for inhaled beta-agonist use; 3) 0.23 L for FEV1; and 4) 18.79 L x min(-1) for PEF. In general placebo-treated patients and older patients, who reported minimal improvement, experienced less mean improvement from baseline than active-treated patients and younger patients, who reported minimal improvement. Determining the minimal patient perceivable improvement value for a measure may be helpful to interpret changes. However, interpretation should be carried out cautiously when reporting a single value as a clinically important change. (+info)