(1/5352) p53 status of newly established acute myeloid leukaemia cell lines.

We analysed the status of the p53 gene and protein in eight newly established acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cell lines representing blast cells of either de novo leukaemia patients in first remission or patients with relapsed and chemotherapy-resistant disease causing their death. There were no mutations in the p53 gene in any of the cell lines as analysed by single-strand conformation polymorphism of amplified exons 5-8. However, the p53 protein was clearly and consistently expressed in all of these cell lines, as shown by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and flow cytometry. The consistently expressed p53 protein was located in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of all the cell lines and, as shown by flow cytometry, it was mostly in a conformation typical of the mutated protein. These AML cell lines offer a tool for studying the production and function of the p53 protein and its possible role in cell cycle regulation and chemoresistance as well as in the regulation of apoptosis in AML.  (+info)

(2/5352) Patterns of care and survival for adolescents and young adults with acute leukaemia--a population-based study.

We report a population-based study of patterns of care and survival for people with acute leukaemia diagnosed at age 15-29 years during 1984-94 in regions of England and Wales covered by specialist leukaemia registries. There were 879 patients: 417 with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 462 with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). For ALL, actuarial survival rates were 43% at 5 years after diagnosis and 37% at 10 years. Survival improved significantly between 1984-88 and 1989-94 for those aged 15-19 at diagnosis. Patients entered in national clinical trials and those not entered had similar survival rates. Survival rates were similar at teaching and non-teaching hospitals and at hospitals treating different numbers of study patients per year. For AML, survival rates were 42% at 5 years after diagnosis and 39% at 10 years. Survival improved significantly between 1984-88 and 1989-94. Patients entered in the Medical Research Council AML10 trial had a higher survival rate than those who were in the earlier AML9 trial. Survival did not vary with category of hospital. We conclude that survival has improved for adolescents and young adults with acute leukaemia but that there is at present no evidence that centralized treatment results in a survival benefit for patients in this age group.  (+info)

(3/5352) Toward a leukemia treatment strategy based on the probability of stem cell death: an essay in honor of Dr. Emil J Freireich.

Dr. Emil J Freireich is a pioneer in the rational treatment of cancer in general and leukemia in particular. This essay in his honor suggests that the cell kill concept of chemotherapy of acute myeloblastic leukemia be extended to include two additional ideas. The first concept is that leukemic blasts, like normal hemopoietic cells, are organized in hierarchies, headed by stem cells. In both normal and leukemic hemopoiesis, killing stem cells will destroy the system; furthermore, both normal and leukemic cells respond to regulators. It follows that acute myelogenous leukemia should be considered as a dependent neoplasm. The second concept is that cell/drug interaction should be considered as two phases. The first, or proximal phase, consists of the events that lead up to injury; the second, or distal phase, comprises the responses of the cell that contribute to either progression to apoptosis or recovery. Distal responses are described briefly. Regulated drug sensitivity is presented as an example of how distal responses might be used to improve treatment.  (+info)

(4/5352) Biallelic and heterozygous point mutations in the runt domain of the AML1/PEBP2alphaB gene associated with myeloblastic leukemias.

The AML1 gene encoding the DNA-binding alpha-subunit in the Runt domain family of heterodimeric transcription factors has been noted for its frequent involvement in chromosomal translocations associated with leukemia. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) combined with nonisotopic RNase cleavage assay (NIRCA), we found point mutations of the AML1 gene in 8 of 160 leukemia patients: silent mutations, heterozygous missense mutations, and biallelic nonsense or frameshift mutations in 2, 4, and 2 cases, respectively. The mutations were all clustered within the Runt domain. Missense mutations identified in 3 patients showed neither DNA binding nor transactivation, although being active in heterodimerization. These defective missense mutants may be relevant to the predisposition or progression of leukemia. On the other hand, the biallelic nonsense mutants encoding truncated AML1 proteins lost almost all functions examined and may play a role in leukemogenesis leading to acute myeloblastic leukemia.  (+info)

(5/5352) Cyclin A1 expression in leukemia and normal hematopoietic cells.

Human cyclin A1 is a newly cloned, tissue-specific cyclin that is prominently expressed in normal testis. In this study, we showed that cyclin A1 was highly expressed in a subset of leukemia samples from patients. The highest frequency of cyclin A1 overexpression was observed in acute myelocytic leukemias, especially those that were at the promyelocyte (M3) and myeloblast (M2) stages of development. Cyclin A1 expression was also detected in normal CD34(+) progenitor cells. The expression of cyclin A1 increased when these cells were stimulated to undergo myeloid differentiation in vitro. Taken together, our observations suggest that cyclin A1 may have a role in hematopoiesis. High levels of cyclin A1 expression are especially associated with certain leukemias blocked at the myeloblast and promyelocyte stages of differentiation.  (+info)

(6/5352) Pneumonia in febrile neutropenic patients and in bone marrow and blood stem-cell transplant recipients: use of high-resolution computed tomography.

PURPOSE: To obtain statistical data on the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for early detection of pneumonia in febrile neutropenic patients with unknown focus of infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight HRCT studies were performed prospectively in 112 neutropenic patients with fever of unknown origin persisting for more than 48 hours despite empiric antibiotic treatment. Fifty-four of these studies were performed in transplant recipients. All patients had normal chest roentgenograms. If pneumonia was detected by HRCT, guided bronchoalveolar lavage was recommended. Evidence of pneumonia on chest roentgenograms during follow-up and micro-organisms detected during follow-up were regarded as documentation of pneumonia. RESULTS: Of the 188 HRCT studies, 112 (60%) showed pneumonia and 76 were normal. Documentation of pneumonia was possible in 61 cases by chest roentgenography or micro-organism detection (54%) (P < 10(-6)). Sensitivity of HRCT was 87% (88% in transplant recipients), specificity was 57% (67%), and the negative predictive value was 88% (97%). A time gain of 5 days was achieved by the additional use of HRCT compared to an exclusive use of chest roentgenography. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of inflammatory pulmonary disease after a suspicious HRCT scan (> 50%) proves that pneumonia is not excluded by a normal chest roentgenogram. Given the significantly longer duration of febrile episodes in transplant recipients, HRCT findings are particularly relevant in this subgroup. Patients with normal HRCT scans, particularly transplant recipients, have a low risk of pneumonia during follow-up. All neutropenic patients with fever of unknown origin and normal chest roentgenograms should undergo HRCT.  (+info)

(7/5352) A novel ubiquitin-specific protease, UBP43, cloned from leukemia fusion protein AML1-ETO-expressing mice, functions in hematopoietic cell differentiation.

Using PCR-coupled subtractive screening-representational difference analysis, we have cloned a novel gene from AML1-ETO knockin mice. This gene is highly expressed in the yolk sac and fetal liver of the knockin mice. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that its cDNA contains an 1,107-bp open reading frame encoding a 368-amino-acid polypeptide. Further protein sequence and protein translation analysis shows that it belongs to a family of ubiquitin-specific proteases (UBP), and its molecular mass is 43 kDa. Therefore, we have named this gene UBP43. Like other ubiquitin proteases, the UBP43 protein has deubiquitinating enzyme activity. Protein ubiquitination has been implicated in many important cellular events. In wild-type adult mice, UBP43 is highly expressed in the thymus and in peritoneal macrophages. Among nine different murine hematopoietic cell lines analyzed, UBP43 expression is detectable only in cell lines related to the monocytic lineage. Furthermore, its expression is regulated during cytokine-induced monocytic cell differentiation. We have investigated its function in the hematopoietic myeloid cell line M1. UBP43 was introduced into M1 cells by retroviral gene transfer, and several high-expressing UBP43 clones were obtained for further study. Morphologic and cell surface marker examination of UBP43/M1 cells reveals that overexpression of UBP43 blocks cytokine-induced terminal differentiation of monocytic cells. These data suggest that UBP43 plays an important role in hematopoiesis by modulating either the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway or the ubiquitination state of another regulatory factor(s) during myeloid cell differentiation.  (+info)

(8/5352) Autologous blood stem cell transplantation for acute myeloblastic leukemia in first complete remission. Intensification therapy before transplantation does not prolong disease-free survival.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical results of two consecutive therapeutic protocols including autologous blood stem cell transplantation (ABSCT) for patients with de novo acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). DESIGN AND METHODS: Between November 1989 and January 1997, 50 patients with AML in CR1 underwent ABSCT using two consecutive protocols. In the first one (Group A, 25 patients) peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were collected after induction and consolidation chemotherapy courses, and ABSCT was performed immediately thereafter. In the subsequent 25 patients (Group B), PBSC were collected after consolidation alone, and a further chemotherapy course with intermediate dose cytarabine (Ara-C 1 g/m2/12 h x3 days) and mitoxantrone (12 mg/m2/d x3 days) was administered as early intensification. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan (16 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) in every case. RESULTS: Hematopoietic engraftment was slightly quicker in Group B, with median times to reach 0.5 x 10(9) neutrophils/L and 20 x 10(9) platelets/L being 13 and 12 days in Group A and 12 and 11 days in Group B, respectively. There were three graft failures (8%) (2 in Group A and 1 in Group B) and three transplant-related deaths (8%) (2 in Group A and 1 in Group B). No significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of relapse (64% at 4-years in Group A and 81% in Group B). Likewise, the actuarial 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) was not significantly different between the two groups (32% v 18%). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that AML patients in CR1 receiving ABSCT have rapid engraftment with low mortality. However, autologous transplants with PBSC collected after consolidation chemotherapy were still associated with a high rate of relapse (RR). This RR was not apparently reduced by the administration of intermediate dose Ara-C before transplantation.  (+info)