(1/1171) Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy.
The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate. (+info)
(2/1171) Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets.
A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine. (+info)
(3/1171) Tissue pharmacokinetics, inhibition of DNA synthesis and tumor cell kill after high-dose methotrexate in murine tumor models.
In Sarcoma 180 and L1210 ascites tumor models, the initial rate of methotrexate accumulation in tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity and in small intestine (intracellularly) after s.c. doses up to 800 mg/kg, showed saturation kinetics. These results and the fact that initial uptake in these tissues within this dosage range was inhibited to the expected relative extent by the simultaneous administration of leucovorin suggest that carrier mediation and not passive diffusion is the major route of drug entry at these extremely high doses. Maximum accumulation of intracellular drug occurred within 2 hr and reached much higher levels in small intestine than in tumor cells at the higher dosages. At a 3-mg/kg dose of methotrexate s.c., intracellular exchangeable drug levels persisted more than four times longer in L1210 cells than in small intestine, but differences in persistence (L1210 cell versus gut) diminished markedly with increasing dosage. At 96 mg/kg, the difference in persistence was less than 2-fold. In small intestine and L1210 cells, theduration of inhibition of DNA synthesis at different dosages correlated with the extent to which exchangeable drug was retained. Toxic deaths occurred when inhibition in small intestine lasted longer than 25 to 30 hr. Recovery of synthesis in small intestine and L1210 cells occurred synchronously and only below dosages of 400 mg/kg. Within 24 hr after dosages of greater than 24 mg/kg, the rate of tumor cell loss increased to a point characterized by a single exponential (t1/2=8.5 hr). The total cell loss, but not the rate of cell loss, was dose dependent. (+info)
(4/1171) The binding of human lactoferrin to mouse peritoneal cells.
Human iron-saturated Lf (FeLf), which was labeled with 125I or 50Fe, was found to combine with the membrane of mouse peritoneal cells (MPC) which consisted of 70% macrophages. The following experimental data suggested the involvement of a specific receptor. (a) The binding of FeLf to MPC reached a saturation point. (b) The binding of radioactive FeLf was inhibited by preincubating the cells with cold FeLf but not with human Tf, human aggregated and nonaggregated IgG, or beef heart cytochrome c (c) Succinylation and carbamylation of FeLf resulted in a loss of its inhibiting activity on the binding of radioactive FeLf. Removal of neuraminic acid from FeLf increased its inhibitory activity. (d) The ability of apoLf to inhibit the binding of FeLf to MPC was significantly lower than that of FeLf. The existence of a Lf receptor capable of concentrating Lf released from neutrophils on the membrane of macrophages could explain the apparent blockade of the release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system, which accounts for the hyposideremia of inflammation. A receptor for FeLf was also found on mouse peritoneal lymphocytes. The affinity constant of FeLf for both lymphocytes and macrophages was 0.9 X 12(6) liter/mol. Howerver, macrophages bound three times more FeLf molecules (20 X 10(6)) per cell than did lymphocytes (7 X 10(6)). (+info)
(5/1171) Potentiation of anti-cancer drug activity at low intratumoral pH induced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and its analogue benzylguanidine (BG).
Tumour-selective acidification is of potential interest for enhanced therapeutic gain of pH sensitive drugs. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a tumour-selective reduction of the extracellular and intracellular pH and their effect on the tumour response of selected anti-cancer drugs. In an in vitro L1210 leukaemic cell model, we confirmed enhanced cytotoxicity of chlorambucil at low extracellular pH conditions. In contrast, the alkylating drugs melphalan and cisplatin, and bioreductive agents mitomycin C and its derivative EO9, required low intracellular pH conditions for enhanced activation. Furthermore, a strong and pH-independent synergism was observed between the pH-equilibrating drug nigericin and melphalan, of which the mechanism is unclear. In radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumour-bearing mice, the extracellular pH was reduced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) or its analogue benzylguanidine (BG) plus glucose. To simultaneously reduce the intracellular pH, MIBG plus glucose were combined with the ionophore nigericin or the Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor amiloride and the Na+-dependent HCO3-/Cl- exchanger inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). Biochemical studies confirmed an effective reduction of the extracellular pH to approximately 6.2, and anti-tumour responses to the interventions indicated a simultaneous reduction of the intracellular pH below 6.6 for at least 3 h. Combined reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH with melphalan increased the tumour regrowth time to 200% of the pretreatment volume from 5.7 +/- 0.6 days for melphalan alone to 8.1 +/- 0.7 days with pH manipulation (P < 0.05). Mitomycin C related tumour growth delay was enhanced by the combined interventions from 3.8 +/- 0.5 to 5.2 +/- 0.5 days (P < 0.05), but only in tumours of relatively large sizes. The interventions were non-toxic alone or in combination with the anti-cancer drugs and did not affect melphalan biodistribution. In conclusion, we have developed non-toxic interventions for sustained and selective reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH which potentiated the tumour responses to selected anti-cancer drugs. (+info)
(6/1171) New antibiotics, enaminomycins A, B and C. II. Physico-chemical and biological properties.
Physico-chemical characterization of enaminomycins revealed that these antibiotics are new members of the epoxy quinone family. From elementary analysis and mass spectroscopic measurements the molecular formulae of enaminomycins A, B and C appear to be C7H5NO5, C10H11N06 and C7H7NO5, respectively. They are very unique in their chemical properties, possessing various functions, such as epoxy, primary amine and carboxylic acid, in their small structural units. Enaminomycin A, the most potent component, has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and shows cytostatic effect on L1210 mouse leukemia cells in vitro, but enaminomycins B and C are only weakly active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (+info)
(7/1171) Graft-versus-leukemia effect and graft-versus-host disease can be differentiated by cytotoxic mechanisms in a murine model of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) is associated with both graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. In the present study, we examined the contribution of cytotoxic effector mechanisms, which are mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Fas ligand (FasL), or perforin, to GVHD and GVL effect in a murine BMT model. Bone marrow cells plus spleen cells (BMS) from wild-type, FasL-defective, or perforin-deficient donors were transferred into lethally irradiated recipients in the parent (C57BL/6) to F1 (C57BL/6 x DBA/2) BMT model with or without prior inoculation of DBA/2 leukemia L1210 or P815 mast cytoma cells. The effect of anti-TNF-alpha antibody administration was also examined. Whereas the defect or blockade of each cytotoxic pathway could ameliorate lethal acute GVHD, the GVL effect was differentially affected. The wild-type BMS recipients died of acute GVHD within 50 days without residual leukemia cells. The FasL-defective BMS recipients showed 60%< survival over 80 days without acute GVHD or residual leukemia cells. Administration of anti-TNF-alpha antibody resulted in early leukemia relapse and the recipients died within 25 days with massive leukemia infiltration in the liver. The perforin-deficient BMS recipients died within 60 days with residual leukemia cells. These results suggest that blockade of the Fas/FasL pathway could be used for ameliorating GVHD without impairing GVL effect in allo-BMT. (+info)
(8/1171) A novel class of lipophilic quinazoline-based folic acid analogues: cytotoxic agents with a folate-independent locus.
Three lipophilic quinazoline-based aminomethyl pyridine compounds, which differ only in the position of the nitrogen in their pyridine ring, are described. CB300179 (2-pyridine), CB300189 (4-pyridine) and CB30865 (3-pyridine) all inhibited isolated mammalian TS with IC50 values of 508, 250 and 156 nM respectively. CB30865 was the most potent growth inhibitory agent (IC50 values in the range 1-100 nM for several mouse and human cell types). CB300179 and CB300189 were active in the micromolar range. Against W1L2 cells, CB300179 and CB300189 demonstrated reduced potency in the presence of exogenous thymidine (dThd), and against a W1L2:C1 TS overproducing cell line. In contrast, CB30865 retained activity in these systems. Furthermore, combinations of precursors and end products of folate metabolism, e.g. dThd/hypoxanthine (HX) or leucovorin (LV), did not prevent activity. CB30865 did not interfere with the incorporation of tritiated dThd, uridine or leucine after 4 h. A cell line was raised with acquired resistance to CB30865 (W1L2:R865; > 200-fold), which was not cross-resistant to CB300179 or CB300189. In addition, W1L2:R865 cells were as sensitive as parental cells to agents from all the major chemotherapeutic drug classes. CB300179 and CB300189 induced an S phase accumulation (preventable by co-administration of dThd). No cell cycle redistribution was observed following exposure (4-48 h) to an equitoxic concentration of CB30865. In the NCI anticancer drug-discovery screen, CB30865 displayed a pattern of activity which was not consistent with known anti-tumour agents. These data suggest that CB30865 represents a class of potent potential anti-tumour agents with a novel mechanism of action. (+info)