(1/418) Weekly administration of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine in patients with hairy-cell leukemia is effective and reduces infectious complications.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It has been widely demonstrated that one single 7-day course continuous infusion (c.i.) 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg daily is dramatically effective in inducing high and prolonged complete remission (CR) rates in patients with hairy-cell leukemia (HCL). However, 2-CdA administration often results in severe neutropenia and lymphocytopenia both responsible for the infectious complications observed in these patients. We previously reported preliminary data regarding the effectiveness and toxicity of a modified protocol of 2-CdA administration (0.15 mg/kg 2 hours infusion once a week for 6 courses) in 25 HCL patients. This treatment schedule produced a similar overall response rate compared to standard 2-CdA regimen and appeared to be followed by a lower incidence of infectious episodes. In the present study we report response rate and toxicity of weekly 2CdA administration in a larger cohort of patients and with a longer follow-up. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a group of HCL patients with a pronounced decrease in neutrophils count (< 1 x 10(9)/L), we modified the standard protocol (0.1 mg/kg daily x 7 days c.i.) by administering 2-CdA at a dose of 0.15 mg/kg 2 hours infusion once a week for 6 courses. Thirty HCL patients, 24 males and 6 females with a median age of 56 years (range 37-76), entered into this protocol. Seventeen out of 30 patients were at diagnosis while the remaining 13 had been previously treated with alpha-interferon (alpha-IFN) (7), or 2-CdA (4) or deoxycoformycin (DCF) (2). RESULTS: Overall, 22/30 (73%) patients achieved CR and 8 (27%) partial remission (PR) with a median duration of response at the time of writing of 35 months, ranging from 6 to 58 months. Five patients (1 CR and 4 PR) have so far progressed. The treatment was very well tolerated. Five out of 30 patients (16%) developed severe neutropenia (neutrophils < 0.5 x 10(9)/L) and only in two of them we did register an infectious complication which required treatment with systemic antibiotics and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we confirm that weekly administration of 2-CdA at a dose of 0.15 mg/kg for 6 courses appears to be very effective in HCL inducing a high CR rate, similar to that observed with daily c.i. administration. CR durability and relapse/progression rates are also comparable to standard 2-CdA schedule. Moreover this new regimen seems to be safer in pancytopenic patients, markedly reducing life-threatening infectious complications. (+info)
(2/418) Filgrastim for cladribine-induced neutropenic fever in patients with hairy cell leukemia.
Cladribine treatment of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is complicated by neutropenic fever in 42% of patients despite documented infections being relatively uncommon. We performed a study of priming filgrastim followed by cladribine and then filgrastim again to determine if filgrastim would lead to a reduction of neutropenia and febrile episodes. Thirty-five patients received filgrastim and cladribine and were compared with 105 historic controls treated with cladribine alone. Cladribine was administered at 0.1 mg/kg/d by continuous infusion for 7 days. Filgrastim was administered at 5 micrograms/kg/d subcutaneously on days -3, -2, and -1 and then again after the completion of cladribine until the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was >/=2 x 10(9)/L on 2 consecutive days (days +8, +9, etc). After filgrastim priming, the median ANC increased from 0.9 x 10(9)/L to 2.26 x 10(9)/L (2.5-fold increase), and after cladribine, the median nadir ANC in the filgrastim-treated group was 0.53 x 10(9)/L compared with 0.29 x 10(9)/L among historic controls (P =. 04). The median number of days to an ANC greater than 1.0 x 10(9)/L was 9 days in the filgrastim-treated group versus 22 days among historic controls (P < 10(-5)). The percentage of febrile patients, number of febrile days, and frequency of admissions for antibiotics were not statistically different in the two groups. Filgrastim regularly increases the ANC in patients with HCL and shortens the duration of severe neutropenia after cladribine. This phase II study, with comparison to historical controls, failed to detect any clinical advantage from the use of filgrastim and cladribine in the treatment of HCL. Accordingly, the routine adjunctive use of filgrastim with cladribine in the treatment of HCL cannot be recommended. (+info)
(3/418) The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is expressed on malignant B cells and mediates chemotaxis.
B- and T-cell recirculation is crucial for the function of the immune system, with the control of cell migration being mainly mediated by several chemokines and their receptors. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of CXCR3 on normal and malignant B cells from 65 patients with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLDs). Although CXCR3 is lacking on CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells from healthy subjects, it is expressed on leukemic B lymphocytes from all (31/31) patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The presence of CXCR3 was heterogeneous in other B-cell disorders, being expressed in 2 of 7 patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 4 of 12 patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL), and 11 of 15 patients with other subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). Chemotaxis assay shows that normal B cells from healthy subjects do not migrate in response to IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and IFN-gamma-induced monokine (Mig). In contrast, a definite migration in response to IP-10 and Mig has been observed in all malignant B cells from patients with CLL, but not in patients with HCL or MCL (1/7 cases tested). Neoplastic B cells from other NHLs showed a heterogenous pattern. The migration elicited by IP-10 and Mig was inhibited by blocking CXCR3. No effect of IP-10 and Mig chemokines was observed on the cytosolic calcium concentration in malignant B cells. The data reported here demonstrate that CXCR3 is expressed on malignant B cells from CLDs, particularly in patients with CLL, and represents a fully functional receptor involved in chemotaxis of malignant B lymphocytes. (+info)
(4/418) Basic fibroblast growth factor is expressed by CD19/CD11c-positive cells in hairy cell leukemia.
Several features are characteristic for hairy cell leukemia (HCL). Among those are pancytopenia, bone marrow fibrosis, and the appearance of a defined tumor cell phenotype in peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM), and spleen. Hairy cells (HC) coexpress antigens specific for B lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages and thus the malignant cell does not seem to be restricted to a defined lineage. When serum or bone marrow aspirate was screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), specimen derived from HCL (serum: mean value, 29 pg/mL; BM aspirate: mean value, 641 pg/mL) contained significantly higher levels than those from healthy subjects. To study whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from patients suffering from HCL and healthy donors (HD) were capable of producing bFGF, culture supernatant (conditioned medium, [CM]) was tested for the presence of this cytokine. While bFGF was not detectable in cell cultures from HD, HCL-derived CM contained relatively high levels of bFGF. CM was successfully used for stimulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation, which could be inhibited by a neutralizing anti-bFGF antibody. Cellular activation by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or the combination of 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) plus calcium ionophore (Ca-Ip) led to an enhanced mRNA expression. Results of Western blot experiments showed that HC synthesize at least three isoforms (approximately 18, 23, and 25 kD), but only the 23-kD isoform is exported. To assess the nature of the producer cell, double immunofluorescence analysis using a bFGF-specific and an anti-CD11c monoclonal antibody (MoAb) was undertaken. The majority of cells scoring positive for CD11c were also reactive with the anti-bFGF MoAb. Furthermore, enrichment of CD19/CD11c-positive cells correlated with enhanced bFGF levels, thereby supporting the argument for HC being the producer cells of bFGF. A biological function of bFGF in HCL might be mediation of chemoresistance, as 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA)-induced inhibition of cell proliferation can be reversed by bFGF. Endogenous bFGF production by HC is not affected by this purine analogue and 2-CdA-induced apoptosis is diminished in bFGF-producing HC as compared with normal PBMC. Therefore, bFGF expression by HC might be important for resistance to chemotherapy and survival of the malignant cells. (+info)
(5/418) Minimal residual disease in patients with hairy cell leukemia in complete remission treated with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine or 2-deoxycoformycin and prediction of early relapse.
The purine nucleoside analogues 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) and 2'-deoxycoformycin (2'-DCF) induce complete remission (CR) in the majority of patients with hairy cell leukemia. However, minimal residual disease (MRD) has been detected in bone marrow core biopsies using immunohistochemical techniques in patients achieving CR by conventional criteria. This study was designed to compare the prevalence of MRD with each agent in patients in CR by using conventional criteria and the relapse-free survival for patients with and without MRD. Bone marrow biopsies from 39 patients treated with a single cycle of 2-CdA and 27 patients treated with multiple cycles of 2'-DCF were studied. The monoclonal antibodies anti-CD20, DBA.44, and anti-CD45RO were used to evaluate the paraffin-embedded bone marrow core biopsies for MRD. Five of 39 patients (13%) treated with 2-CdA had MRD, as compared to 7 of 27 patients (26%) treated with 2'-DCF (two-tailed P = 0.21). Relapse has occurred in two of the five patients with MRD after 2-CdA treatment and in four of the seven patients with MRD after 2'-DCF treatment. In total, 6 of the 12 patients (50%) with MRD have relapsed, whereas 3 of 54 patients (6%) without MRD have relapsed, and 2 patients have died without evidence of relapse. The estimated 4-year relapse-free survival among patients with MRD is 55% (+/- 15%, SE), compared to 88% (+/- 5%, SE) among patients without MRD (two-tailed P = 0.0023). The prevalence of MRD detected in a subset of patients in CR after either 2-CdA or 2'-DCF treatment did not differ significantly. However, the presence of MRD is associated with an increased risk of relapse. (+info)
(6/418) Responses in refractory hairy cell leukemia to a recombinant immunotoxin.
We report major responses in 4 of 4 patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) who have recently been treated on a phase I trial with the recombinant immunotoxin LMB-2. The immunotoxin, designed to target CD25(+) malignancies, is composed of the Fv portion of the anti-Tac (anti-CD25) antibody, fused to a 38-kD truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and has previously been called anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38. All 4 HCL patients were resistant to standard and salvage therapies for HCL, including 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (CdA) and interferon alpha, and all patients responded to LMB-2 after a single cycle. One patient treated with 2 cycles had a complete remission (CR), with regression of HCL cells from the blood and marrow and resolution of splenomegaly and pancytopenia. As is typical for patients in CR after treatment with CdA, minimal residual disease was detectable by flow cytometry of the bone marrow aspirate. This patient has not relapsed after 11 months. Three other patients had 98% to 99.8% reductions in malignant circulating cells. These results represent a proof of principal that targeted therapy with recombinant Fv-containing proteins can be clinically useful. LMB-2 may be an effective new therapy for patients with chemotherapy-resistant CD25(+) HCL. (+info)
(7/418) Hairy cell leukemia, a B-cell neoplasm that is particularly sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38 (LMB-2).
Anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38 (LMB-2) is a recombinant, single-chain immunotoxin composed of the variable domains of the anti-Tac (anti-CD25) monoclonal antibody fused to a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE). Until now, this agent has been reported to be very cytotoxic toward T-cell but not B-cell leukemic cells freshly obtained from patients and is being tested clinically in patients with CD25+ malignancies of both B- and T-cell origin. Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a B-cell malignancy in which the cells are usually CD25+ and their ex vivo sensitivity to LMB-2 was unknown. Malignant cells from the first HCL patient to be tested were very sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of LMB-2 in vitro (IC50, 1.1 ng/ml), and this patient responded clinically to LMB-2 administered systemically. Therefore, we decided to assess the potential clinical utility of LMB-2 in other patients with HCL. We tested fresh leukemic cells from nine additional CD25+ HCL patients. LMB-2 was very cytotoxic ex vivo in all patients with IC50s as low as 0.5 ng/ml. Malignant cells freshly obtained from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were also sensitive to LMB-2 but not as sensitive as cells from HCL patients. These results indicate that CD25+ HCL is a B-cell neoplasm that is particularly sensitive to LMB-2, and this agent may be useful in patients who have failed standard therapies. (+info)
(8/418) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as an autocrine survival factor for mature normal and malignant B lymphocytes.
The role of GM-CSF in B cell (patho)physiology is unclear. Although B cells can respond to GM-CSF, there is controversy concerning the extent to which various resting and activated B cell types can themselves produce this cytokine, and the possibility that it can function in an autocrine fashion has not previously been considered. The aim of the present study was to address these issues using hairy cells (HCs) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, two intrinsically activated mature malignant B cell types (with activation being more uniform and more pronounced in HCs). Normal B cells were used for comparison. Using a number of techniques, we demonstrated the constitutive production of GM-CSF by all three cell types and showed that the cytokine was biologically active. GM-CSF mRNA and protein were increased after cell activation by PMA, and constitutive production of the cytokine was highest in HCs, suggesting that the level of GM-CSF production is influenced by cell activation. Because GM-CSF is known to be antiapoptotic for myeloid cells, we used blocking anti-GM-CSF Abs to examine the contribution of autocrinely produced cytokine to cell survival. The Abs produced marked reduction in the in vitro survival of HCs, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, and normal B cells by promoting apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that, in combination with other known rescue factors, autocrinely produced GM-CSF may contribute to normal and malignant B cell survival in vivo. (+info)