Control of ketogenesis from amino acids. IV. Tissue specificity in oxidation of leucine, tyrosine, and lysine.
In vitro and in vivo studies were made on the tissue specificity of oxidation of the ketogenic amino acids, leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. In in vitro studies the abilities of slices of various tissues of rats to form 14CO2 from 14C-amino acids were examined. With liver, but not kidney slices, addition of alpha-ketoglutarate was required for the maximum activities with these amino acids. Among the various tissues tested, kidney had the highest activity for lysine oxidation, followed by liver; other tissues showed very low activity. Kidney also had the highest activity for leucine oxidation, followed by diaphragm; liver and adipose tissue had lower activities. Liver had the highest activity for tyrosine oxidation, but kidney also showed considerable activity; other tissues had negligible activity. In in vivo studies the blood flow through the liver or kidney was stopped by ligation of the blood vessels. Then labeled amino acids were injected and recovery of radioactivity in respiratory 14CO2 was measured. In contrast to results with slices, no difference was found in the respiratory 14CO2 when the renal blood vessels were or were not ligated. On the contrary ligation of the hepatic vessels suppressed the oxidations of lysine and tyrosine completely and that of leucine partially. Thus in vivo, lysine and tyrosine seem to be metabolized mainly in the liver, whereas leucine is metabolized mostly in extrahepatic tissues and partly in liver. Use of tissue slices seems to be of only limited value in elucidating the metabolisms of these amino acids. (+info)
A general method for selection of alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase-deficient Lactococcus lactis mutants to improve diacetyl formation.
The enzyme acetolactate decarboxylase (Ald) plays a key role in the regulation of the alpha-acetolactate pool in both pyruvate catabolism and the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). This dual role of Ald, due to allosteric activation by leucine, was used as a strategy for the isolation of Ald-deficient mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Such mutants can be selected as leucine-resistant mutants in ILV- or IV-prototrophic strains. Most dairy lactococcus strains are auxotrophic for the three amino acids. Therefore, the plasmid pMC004 containing the ilv genes (encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of IV) of L. lactis NCDO2118 was constructed. Introduction of pMC004 into ILV-auxotrophic dairy strains resulted in an isoleucine-prototrophic phenotype. By plating the strains on a chemically defined medium supplemented with leucine but not valine and isoleucine, spontaneous leucine-resistant mutants were obtained. These mutants were screened by Western blotting with Ald-specific antibodies for the presence of Ald. Selected mutants lacking Ald were subsequently cured of pMC004. Except for a defect in the expression of Ald, the resulting strain, MC010, was identical to the wild-type strain, as shown by Southern blotting and DNA fingerprinting. The mutation resulting in the lack of Ald in MC010 occurred spontaneously, and the strain does not contain foreign DNA; thus, it can be regarded as food grade. Nevertheless, its application in dairy products depends on the regulation of genetically modified organisms. These results establish a strategy to select spontaneous Ald-deficient mutants from transformable L. lactis strains. (+info)
Hmo1p, a high mobility group 1/2 homolog, genetically and physically interacts with the yeast FKBP12 prolyl isomerase.
The immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and rapamycin bind to the cellular protein FKBP12, and the resulting FKBP12-drug complexes inhibit signal transduction. FKBP12 is a ubiquitous, highly conserved, abundant enzyme that catalyzes a rate-limiting step in protein folding: peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerization. However, FKBP12 is dispensible for viability in both yeast and mice, and therefore does not play an essential role in protein folding. The functions of FKBP12 may involve interactions with a number of partner proteins, and a few proteins that interact with FKBP12 in the absence of FK506 or rapamycin have been identified, including the ryanodine receptor, aspartokinase, and the type II TGF-beta receptor; however, none of these are conserved from yeast to humans. To identify other targets and functions of FKBP12, we have screened for mutations that are synthetically lethal with an FKBP12 mutation in yeast. We find that mutations in HMO1, which encodes a high mobility group 1/2 homolog, are synthetically lethal with mutations in the yeast FPR1 gene encoding FKBP12. Deltahmo1 and Deltafpr1 mutants share two phenotypes: an increased rate of plasmid loss and slow growth. In addition, Hmo1p and FKBP12 physically interact in FKBP12 affinity chromatography experiments, and two-hybrid experiments suggest that FKBP12 regulates Hmo1p-Hmo1p or Hmo1p-DNA interactions. Because HMG1/2 proteins are conserved from yeast to humans, our findings suggest that FKBP12-HMG1/2 interactions could represent the first conserved function of FKBP12 other than mediating FK506 and rapamycin actions. (+info)
Nuclear export of LIM-kinase 1, mediated by two leucine-rich nuclear-export signals within the PDZ domain.
LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates cofilin and regulates actin-filament dynamics. LIMK1, which contains two LIM domains and a single PDZ domain, localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm, but its mutant, deleted with the PDZ domain, localizes mainly in the nucleus, thereby indicating that the PDZ domain plays a role in the cytoplasmic localization of LIMK1. Here we provide evidence that the PDZ domain of LIMK1 contains two functional leucine-rich nuclear-export signals (NESs). The PDZ domain of LIMK1 fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST-PDZ), when injected into the nucleus, was rapidly excluded from the nucleus, but its mutant with replacements of conserved hydrophobic residues in two putative NESs by alanines remained in the nucleus. The nuclear export of GST-PDZ was sensitive to leptomycin B (LMB), a specific inhibitor of nuclear export mediated by leucine-rich NESs. Malfunctional mutation of two NESs or LMB treatment prevented the nuclear export of full-length LIMK1 and induced its nuclear accumulation. These results suggest that the predominant localization of LIMK1 in the cytoplasm is supported by two NESs within the PDZ domain and that LIMK1 normally shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also provide evidence that a short basic cluster sequence within the protein-kinase domain is involved in the nuclear import of LIMK1. (+info)
Ion binding and permeation through the lepidopteran amino acid transporter KAAT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
1. The transient and steady-state currents induced by voltage jumps in Xenopus oocytes expressing the lepidopteran amino acid co-transporter KAAT1 have been investigated by two-electrode voltage clamp. 2. KAAT1-expressing oocytes exhibited membrane currents larger than controls even in the absence of amino acid substrate (uncoupled current). The selectivity order of this uncoupled current was Li+ > Na+ approximately Rb+ approximately K+ > Cs+; in contrast, the permeability order in non-injected oocytes was Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+. 3. KAAT1-expressing oocytes gave rise to 'pre-steady-state currents' in the absence of amino acid. The characteristics of the charge movement differed according to the bathing ion: the curves in K+ were strongly shifted (> 100 mV) towards more negative potentials compared with those in Na+, while in tetramethylammonium (TMA+) no charge movement was detected. 4. The charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship in Na+ could be fitted by a Boltzmann equation having V of -69 +/- 1 mV and slope factor of 26 +/- 1 mV; lowering the Na+ concentrations shifted the Q-V relationship to more negative potentials; the curves could be described by a generalized Hill equation with a coefficient of 1.6, suggesting two binding sites. The maximal movable charge (Qmax) in Na+, 3 days after injection, was in the range 2.5-10 nC. 5. Addition of the transported substrate leucine increased the steady-state carrier current, the increase being larger in high K+ compared with high Na+ solution; in these conditions the charge movement disappeared. 6. Applying Eyring rate theory, the energy profile of the transporter in the absence of organic substrate included a very high external energy barrier (25.8 RT units) followed by a rather deep well (1.8 RT units). (+info)
A surrogate measure of whole body leucine transport across the cell membrane.
Based on a mass-balance model, a surrogate measure of the whole body leucine transport into and out of cells under steady-state conditions was calculated as u/DeltaTTR, where u is the infusion rate of (stable label) leucine tracer and DeltaTTR is the difference between the tracer-to-tracee ratio of extracellular and intracellular leucine. The approach was evaluated in ten healthy subjects [8 males and 2 females; age, 31 +/- 9 (SD) yr; body mass index, 24.0 +/- 1.6 kg/m2] who received a primed (7.58 micromol/kg) constant intravenous infusion (7.58 micromol. kg-1. h-1) of L-[1-13C]leucine over 180 min (7 subjects) or 240 min (3 subjects). Five subjects were studied on two occasions >/=1 wk apart to assess reproducibility. Blood samples taken during the last 30 min of the leucine infusion were used to determine plasma leucine concentration (129 +/- 35 micromol/l), TTR of leucine (9.0 +/- 1.5%), and TTR of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (6.7 +/- 0.8%). The latter TTR was taken as the measure of the free intracellular leucine TTR. The whole body inward and outward transport was 6.66 +/- 3.82 micromol. kg-1. min-1; the rate of leucine appearance due to proteolysis was 1.93 +/- 0.24 micromol. kg-1. min-1. A positive linear relationship between the inward transport and plasma leucine was observed (P < 0.01), indicating the presence of the mass effect of leucine on its own transport. The transport was highly variable between subjects (between-subject coefficient of variation 57%) but reproducible (within-subject coefficient of variation 17%). We conclude that reproducible estimates of whole body transport of leucine across the cell membrane can be obtained under steady-state conditions with existing experimental and analytical procedures. (+info)
Transthyretin Leu12Pro is associated with systemic, neuropathic and leptomeningeal amyloidosis.
We report a middle-aged woman with a novel transthyretin (TTR) variant, Leu12Pro. She had extensive amyloid deposition in the leptomeninges and liver as well as the involvement of the heart and peripheral nervous system which characterizes familial amyloid polyneuropathy caused by variant TTR. Clinical features attributed to her leptomeningeal amyloid included radiculopathy, central hypoventilation, recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage, depression, seizures and periods of decreased consciousness. MRI showed a marked enhancement throughout her meninges and ependyma, and TTR amyloid deposition was confirmed by meningeal biopsy. The simultaneous presence of extensive visceral amyloid and clinically significant deposits affecting both the peripheral and central nervous system extends the spectrum of amyloid-related disease associated with TTR mutations. The unusual association of severe peripheral neuropathy with symptoms of leptomeningeal amyloid indicates that leptomeningeal amyloidosis should be considered part of the syndrome of TTR-related familial amyloid polyneuropathy. (+info)
Leucine metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions.
BACKGROUND: Although medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) may be utilized more efficiently than long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs), their effect on protein metabolism remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of mixed MCT-LCT and pure LCT emulsions on leucine metabolism in preterm infants. DESIGN: Fourteen preterm [gestational age: 30+/-1 wk; birth weight: 1409+/-78 g (x +/- SE)] neonates were randomly assigned to receive, from the first day of life, either a 50:50 MCT-LCT (mixed MCT group; n = 7) or an LCT (LCT group; n = 7) lipid emulsion as part of an isonitrogenous, isoenergetic total parenteral nutrition program. On the fourth day, infants received intravenous feeding providing 3 g lipid, 15 g glucose, and 3 g amino acids kg(-1) x d(-1) and underwent 1) indirect calorimetry and 2) a primed, 2-h infusion of H13CO3Na to assess the recovery of 13C in breath, immediately followed by 3) a 3-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. RESULTS: The respiratory quotient tended to be slightly but not significantly higher in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (0.96+/-0.06 compared with 0.93+/-0.03). We did not detect a significant difference between the mixed MCT and LCT groups with regard to release of leucine from protein breakdown (B; 309+/-40 compared with 257+/-46 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD; 296+/-36 compared with 285+/-49 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). In contrast, leucine oxidation was greater in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (113+/-10 compared with 67+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.007). Net leucine balance (NOLD - B) was less positive in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (-14+/-9 compared with 28+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Mixed MCTs may not be as effective as LCT-containing emulsions in promoting protein accretion in parenterally fed preterm neonates. (+info)