Lettuce infectious yellows virus: in vitro acquisition analysis using partially purified virions and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
Virions of lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV; genus Crinivirus) were purified from LIYV-infected plants and their protein composition was analysed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Virion preparations contained the major capsid protein (CP), but the minor capsid protein (CPm), p59 and the HSP70 homologue were also identified by immunoblot analysis. Immunogold labelling analysis showed that CP constituted the majority of the LIYV virion capsid, but CPm was also part of the capsid and localized to one end of the virion, similar to the polar morphology seen for viruses in the genus Closterovirus. p59 and the HSP70 homologue were not detected on virions by immunogold labelling, but were always detected in virion preparations by immunoblot analysis. Purified LIYV virions were used for in vitro acquisition analysis with Bemisia tabaci whiteflies and were efficiently transmitted to plants. Infectivity neutralization analyses were done using antisera to the LIYV-encoded CP, CPm, p59 and HSP70 homologue. Only antiserum to the CPm effectively neutralized LIYV transmission by B. tabaci. These data suggest that the LIYV-B. tabaci transmission determinants are associated with purified virions, and that the LIYV virion structural protein CPm is involved in transmission by B. tobaci. (+info)
Comparison of phylloquinone bioavailability from food sources or a supplement in human subjects.
Phylloquinone (K) absorption was assessed in 22- to 30-y-old human subjects consuming a standard test meal [402 kcal (1682 kJ), 27% energy from fat]. The absorption of phylloquinone, measured over a 9-h period as the area under the curve (AUC), was higher (P < 0.01) after the consumption of a 500- microgram phylloquinone tablet [27.55 +/- 10.08 nmol/(L. h), n = 8] than after the ingestion of 495 microgram phylloquinone as 150 g of raw spinach [4.79 +/- 1.11 nmol/(L. h), n = 3]. Less phylloquinone (P < 0.05) was absorbed from 50 g of spinach (AUC = 2.49 +/- 1.11 nmol/(L. h) than from 150 g of spinach. Absorption of phylloquinone from fresh spinach (165 microgram K), fresh broccoli (184 microgram K) and fresh romaine lettuce (179 microgram K) did not differ. There was no difference in phylloquinone absorption from fresh or cooked broccoli or from fresh romaine lettuce consumed with a meal containing 30 or 45% energy as fat. (+info)
A plant-derived edible vaccine against hepatitis B virus.
The infectious hepatitis B virus represents 42 nm spherical double-shelled particles. However, analysis of blood from hepatitis B virus carriers revealed the presence of smaller 22 nm particles consisting of a viral envelope surface protein. These particles are highly immunogenic and have been used in the design of hepatitis B virus vaccine produced in yeast. Upon expression in yeast, these proteins form virus-like particles that are used for parenteral immunization. Therefore, the DNA fragment encoding hepatitis B virus surface antigen was introduced into Agrobacterium tumerifacience LBA4404 and used to obtain transgenic lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. Burpee Bibb expressing envelope surface protein. Mice that were fed the transgenic lupin tissue developed significant levels of hepatitis B virus-specific antibodies. Human volunteers, fed with transgenic lettuce plants expressing hepatitis B virus surface antigen, developed specific serum-IgG response to plant produced protein. (+info)
Effects of green fluorescent protein or beta-glucuronidase tagging on the accumulation and pathogenicity of a resistance-breaking Lettuce mosaic virus isolate in susceptible and resistant lettuce cultivars.
The RNA genome of a resistance-breaking isolate of Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV-E) was engineered to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) or beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fused to the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) to study LMV invasion and spread in susceptible and resistant lettuce cultivars. Virus accumulation and movement were monitored by either histochemical GUS assays or detection of GFP fluorescence under UV light. The GFP- and GUS-tagged viruses spread systemically in the susceptible lettuce cultivars Trocadero and Vanguard, where they induced attenuated symptoms, compared with the wild-type virus. Accumulation of the GFP-tagged virus was reduced but less affected than in the case of the GUS-tagged virus. Systemic movement of both recombinant viruses was very severely affected in Vanguard 75, a lettuce cultivar nearly isogenic to Vanguard but carrying the resistance gene mo1(2). Accumulation of the recombinant viruses in systemically infected leaves was either undetectable (GUS-tag) or erratic, strongly delayed, and inhibited by as much as 90% (GFP-tag). As a consequence, and contrary to the parental virus, the recombinant viruses were not able to overcome the protection afforded by the mo1(2) gene. Taken together, these results indicate that GUS or GFP tagging of the HC-Pro of LMV has significant negative effects on the biology of the virus, abolishing its resistance-breaking properties and reducing its pathogenicity in susceptible cultivars. (+info)
A heterogeneous population of defective RNAs is associated with lettuce infectious yellows virus.
Preparations of dsRNAs and virion RNAs extracted from Nicotiana clevelandii plants infected with the bipartite Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) were found to contain multiple LIYV RNA species. In addition to the two LIYV genomic RNAs, three types of RNAs were observed: (a) 3' coterminal subgenomic RNAs; (b) RNAs containing LIYV RNA 1 or RNA 2 5' terminus but lacking the 3' terminus; and (c) RNAs with both LIYV RNA 2 3' and 5' termini but each with a central extensive deletion, a structure typical of defective RNAs (D RNAs). No D RNA-like RNAs were detected for LIYV RNA 1. A reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) strategy was used to clone from virion RNAs several LIYV RNA 2 D RNAs as cDNAs. Nucleotide sequence analysis of 43 cloned cDNAs showed in some D RNAs the presence of a stretch of 1-5 nt in the junction site that is repeated in the genomic RNA 2 in the two positions flanking the junction site or in close proximity. Some D RNAs contained in the junction site one or several extra nucleotides not present in the LIYV genomic RNA 2. Two of the cloned cDNAs were used to generate in vitro transcripts, and infectivity studies showed that both D RNAs were replication competent in protoplasts when coinoculated with LIYV RNAs 1 and 2 or with only LIYV RNA1. Neither D RNA showed obvious effects upon LIYV RNA 1 and RNA 2 accumulation in coinfected protoplasts. These data suggest that LIYV infections contain a heterogeneous population of LIYV RNA 2 D RNAs, and some are encapsidated into virions. (+info)
Asynchronous accumulation of lettuce infectious yellows virus RNAs 1 and 2 and identification of an RNA 1 trans enhancer of RNA 2 accumulation.
Time course and mutational analyses were used to examine the accumulation in protoplasts of progeny RNAs of the bipartite Crinivirus, Lettuce infectious yellow virus (LIYV; family Closteroviridae). Hybridization analyses showed that simultaneous inoculation of LIYV RNAs 1 and 2 resulted in asynchronous accumulation of progeny LIYV RNAs. LIYV RNA 1 progeny genomic and subgenomic RNAs could be detected in protoplasts as early as 12 h postinoculation (p.i.) and accumulated to high levels by 24 h p.i. The LIYV RNA 1 open reading frame 2 (ORF 2) subgenomic RNA was the most abundant of all LIYV RNAs detected. In contrast, RNA 2 progeny were not readily detected until ca. 36 h p.i. Mutational analyses showed that in-frame stop codons introduced into five of seven RNA 2 ORFs did not affect accumulation of progeny LIYV RNA 1 or RNA 2, confirming that RNA 2 does not encode proteins necessary for LIYV RNA replication. Mutational analyses also supported that LIYV RNA 1 encodes proteins necessary for replication of LIYV RNAs 1 and 2. A mutation introduced into the LIYV RNA 1 region encoding the overlapping ORF 1B and ORF 2 was lethal. However, mutations introduced into only LIYV RNA 1 ORF 2 resulted in accumulation of progeny RNA 1 near or equal to wild-type RNA 1. In contrast, the RNA 1 ORF 2 mutants did not efficiently support the trans accumulation of LIYV RNA 2. Three distinct RNA 1 ORF 2 mutants were analyzed and all exhibited a similar phenotype for progeny LIYV RNA accumulation. These data suggest that the LIYV RNA 1 ORF 2 encodes a trans enhancer for RNA 2 accumulation. (+info)
Metabolite profiling of sesquiterpene lactones from Lactuca species. Major latex components are novel oxalate and sulfate conjugates of lactucin and its derivatives.
Wounding leaves or stems of Lactuca species releases a milky latex onto the plant surface. We have examined the constituents of latex from Lactuca sativa (lettuce) cv. Diana. The major components were shown to be novel 15-oxalyl and 8-sulfate conjugates of the guaianolide sesquiterpene lactones, lactucin, deoxylactucin, and lactucopicrin. The oxalates were unstable, reverting to the parent sesquiterpene lactone on hydrolysis. Oxalyl derivatives have been reported rarely from natural sources. The sulfates were stable and are the first reported sesquiterpene sulfates from plants. Unusual tannins based on 4-hydroxyphenylacetyl conjugates of glucose were also identified. Significant qualitative and quantitative variation was found in sesquiterpene lactone profiles in different lettuce varieties and in other Lactuca spp. The proportions of each conjugate in latex also changed depending on the stage of plant development. A similar profile was found in chicory, in which oxalyl conjugates were identified, but the 8-sulfate conjugates were notably absent. The presence of the constitutive sesquiterpene lactones was not correlated with resistance to pathogens but may have a significant bearing on the molecular basis of the bitter taste of lettuce and related species. The induced sesquiterpene lactone phytoalexin, lettucenin A, was found in the Lactuca spp. but not in chicory. (+info)
Contamination of foods by food handlers: experiments on hepatitis A virus transfer to food and its interruption.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an important pathogen which has been responsible for many food-borne outbreaks. HAV-excreting food handlers, especially those with poor hygienic practices, can contaminate the foods which they handle. Consumption of such foods without further processing has been known to result in cases of infectious hepatitis. Since quantitative data on virus transfer during contact of hands with foods is not available, we investigated the transfer of HAV from artificially contaminated fingerpads of adult volunteers to pieces of fresh lettuce. Touching the lettuce with artificially contaminated fingerpads for 10 s at a pressure of 0.2 to 0.4 kg/cm(2) resulted in transfer of 9.2% +/- 0.9% of the infectious virus. The pretreatments tested to interrupt virus transfer from contaminated fingerpads included (i) hard-water rinsing and towel drying, (ii) application of a domestic or commercial topical agent followed by water rinsing and towel drying, and (iii) exposure to a hand gel containing 62% ethanol or 75% liquid ethanol without water rinsing or towel drying. When the fingerpads were treated with the topical agents or alcohol before the lettuce was touched, the amount of infectious virus transferred to lettuce was reduced from 9.2% to between 0.3 and 0.6% (depending on the topical agent used), which was a reduction in virus transfer of up to 30-fold. Surprisingly, no virus transfer to lettuce was detected when the fingerpads were rinsed with water alone before the lettuce was touched. However, additional experiments with water rinsing in which smaller volumes of water were used (1 ml instead of 15 ml) showed that the rate of virus transfer to lettuce was 0.3% +/- 0.1%. The variability in virus transfer rates following water rinsing may indicate that the volume of water at least in part influences virus removal from the fingerpads differently, a possibility which should be investigated further. This study provided novel information concerning the rate of virus transfer to foods and a model for investigating the transfer of viral and other food-borne pathogens from contaminated hands to foods, as well as techniques for interrupting such transfer to improve food safety. (+info)