The role of optical defocus in regulating refractive development in infant monkeys.
Early in life, the two eyes of infant primates normally grow in a coordinated manner toward the ideal refractive state. We investigated the extent to which lens-induced changes in the effective focus of the eye affected refractive development in infant rhesus monkeys. The main finding was that spectacle lenses could predictably alter the growth of one or both eyes resulting in appropriate compensating refractive changes in both the hyperopic and myopic directions. Although the effective operating range of the emmetropization process in young monkeys is somewhat limited, the results demonstrate that emmetropization in this higher primate, as in a number of other species, is an active process that is regulated by optical defocus associated with the eye's effective refractive state. (+info)
The growing eye: an autofocus system that works on very poor images.
It is unknown which retinal image features are analyzed to control axial eye growth and refractive development. On the other hand, identification of these features is fundamental for the understanding of visually acquired refractive errors. Cyclopleged chicks were individually kept in the center of a drum with only one viewing distance possible. Defocusing spectacle lenses were used to stimulate the retina with defined defocus of similar magnitude but different sign. If spatial frequency content and contrast were the only cues analyzed by the retina, all chicks should have become myopic. However, compensatory eye growth was still always in the right direction. The most likely cues for emmetropization, spatial frequency content and image contrast, do therefore not correlate with the elongation of the eye. Rather, the sign of defocus was extracted even from very poor images. (+info)
Long-term changes in retinal contrast sensitivity in chicks from frosted occluders and drugs: relations to myopia?
Experiments in animal models have shown that the retinal analyzes the image to identify the position of the plane of focus and fine-tunes the growth of the underlying sclera. It is fundamental to the understanding of the development of refractive errors to know which image features are processed. Since the position of the image plane fluctuates continuously with accommodative status and viewing distance, a meaningful control of refractive development can only occur by an averaging procedure with a long time constant. As a candidate for a retinal signal for enhanced eye growth and myopia we propose the level of contrast adaptation which varies with the average amount of defocus. Using a behavioural paradigm, we have found in chickens (1) that contrast adaptation (CA, here referred to as an increase in contrast sensitivity) occurs at low spatial frequencies (0.2 cyc/deg) already after 1.5 h of wearing frosted goggles which cause deprivation myopia, (2) that CA also occurs with negative lenses (-7.4D) and positive lenses (+6.9D) after 1.5 h, at least if accommodation is paralyzed and, (3) that CA occurs at a retinal level or has, at least, a retinal component. Furthermore, we have studied the effects of atropine and reserpine, which both suppress myopia development, on CA. Quisqualate, which causes retinal degeneration but leaves emmetropization functional, was also tested. We found that both atropine and reserpine increase contrast sensitivity to a level where no further CA could be induced by frosted goggles. Quisqualate increased only the variability of refractive development and of contrast sensitivity. Taken together, CA occurring during extended periods of defocus is a possible candidate for a retinal error signal for myopia development. However, the situation is complicated by the fact that there must be a second image processing mode generating a powerful inhibitory growth signal if the image is in front of the retina, even with poor images (Diether, S., & Schaeffel, F. (1999). (+info)
The response to prism deviations in human infants.
Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks . Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors . This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported  when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities . According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only)  , predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results , discounts previous hypotheses. (+info)
Recent developments in clinical photography.
A system comprising a clinical camera, specialized retractors, and a new occlusal mirror are described to maximize the quality of both intra-oral and extra-oral photography in the multi-user situation. (+info)
Effect of adaptation to telescopic spectacles on the initial human horizontal vestibuloocular reflex.
Gain of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) not only varies with target distance and rotational axis, but can be chronically modified in response to prolonged wearing of head-mounted magnifiers. This study examined the effect of adaptation to telescopic spectacles on the variation of the VOR with changes in target distance and yaw rotational axis for head velocity transients having peak accelerations of 2,800 and 1,000 degrees /s(2). Eye and head movements were recorded with search coils in 10 subjects who underwent whole body rotations around vertical axes that were 10 cm anterior to the eyes, centered between the eyes, between the otoliths, or 20 cm posterior to the eyes. Immediately before each rotation, subjects viewed a target 15 or 500 cm distant. Lighting was extinguished immediately before and was restored after completion of each rotation. After initial rotations, subjects wore 1.9x magnification binocular telescopic spectacles during their daily activities for at least 6 h. Test spectacles were removed and measurement rotations were repeated. Of the eight subjects tolerant of adaptation to the telescopes, six demonstrated VOR gain enhancement after adaptation, while gain in two subjects was not increased. For all subjects, the earliest VOR began 7-10 ms after onset of head rotation regardless of axis eccentricity or target distance. Regardless of adaptation, VOR gain for the proximate target exceeded that for the distant target beginning at 20 ms after onset of head rotation. Adaptation increased VOR gain as measured 90-100 ms after head rotation onset by an average of 0.12 +/- 0.02 (SE) for the higher head acceleration and 0.19 +/- 0.02 for the lower head acceleration. After adaptation, four subjects exhibited significant increases in the canal VOR gain only, whereas two subjects exhibited significant increases in both angular and linear VOR gains. The latencies of linear and early angular target distance effects on VOR gain were unaffected by adaptation. The earliest significant change in angular VOR gain in response to adaptation occurred 50 and 68 ms after onset of the 2,800 and 1,000 degrees /s(2) peak head accelerations, respectively. The latency of the adaptive increase in linear VOR gain was approximately 50 ms for the peak head acceleration of 2,800 degrees /s(2), and 100 ms for the peak head acceleration of 1,000 degrees /s(2). Thus VOR gain changes and latency were consistent with modification in the angular VOR in most subjects, and additionally in the linear VOR in a minority of subjects. (+info)
Clinical effect of low vision aids.
The number of patients with low vision is increasing as life expectancy increases. In addition, the interest and demand for low vision aids are also increasing with improved socioeconomic status and the development of mass media. Therefore, it is imperative to recognize the importance of low vision aids. We reviewed the clinical records of 118 patients who visited our low vision clinic more than twice. According to the data analyzed, optic nerve atrophy, retinal degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration were the most common causes of low vision in these patients. The best corrected visual acuities without low vision aids were less than 0.3, but with the help of low vision aids, vision improved to more than 0.4 in 87% of the patients for near vision, and 56% for distant vision. The patients had complained that they could not read books, see a blackboard, recognize a person at a distance, and had other problems because of low vision. However, with the use of low vision aids their satisfaction with their vision rose to 70%. Hand magnifiers, high-powered spectacle lenses, and stand magnifiers were the low vision aids commonly used by people for near vision, while the Galilean telescope and Keplerian telescope were the most popular devices used for distant vision. In conclusion, low vision aids are very helpful devices to patients with low vision. (+info)
Form-deprivation myopia in monkeys is a graded phenomenon.
To shed light on the potential role of the phenomenon of form-deprivation myopia in normal refractive development, we investigated the degree of image degradation required to produce axial myopia in rhesus monkeys. Starting at about 3 weeks of age, diffuser spectacle lenses were employed to degrade the retinal image in one eye of 13 infant monkeys. The diffusers were worn continuously for periods ranging between 11 and 19 weeks. The effects of three different strengths of optical diffusers, which produced reductions in image contrast that ranged from about 0.5 to nearly 3 log units, were assessed by retinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography. Control data were obtained from ten normal infants and three infants reared with clear, zero-powered lenses over both eyes. Eleven of the 13 treated infants developed form-deprivation myopia. Qualitatively similar results were obtained for the three diffuser groups, however, the degree of axial myopia varied directly with the degree of image degradation. Thus, form-deprivation myopia in monkeys is a graded phenomenon and can be triggered by a modest degree of chronic image degradation. (+info)