Regional survey of femoral neck fractures.
In the South-west Thames Region 2619 patients (2105 women and 514 men) were discharged with a diagnosis of femoral neck fracture in 1974. The equivalent of a 250-bedded hospital was occupied throughout the year. The incidence, average length of stay, and mortality rate rose with increasing age and there were differences in these indices in the five health areas. These results confirm the enormous burden placed on the hospital service by patients with fracture of the femoral neck but suggest that differences in practice in the five areas may contribute to the size of the problem. (+info)
Incidence and duration of hospitalizations among persons with AIDS: an event history approach.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze hospitalization patterns of persons with AIDS (PWAs) in a multi-state/multi-episode continuous time duration framework. DATA SOURCES: PWAs on Medicaid identified through a match between the state's AIDS Registry and Medicaid eligibility files; hospital admission and discharge dates identified through Medicaid claims. STUDY DESIGN: Using a Weibull event history framework, we model the hazard of transition between hospitalized and community spells, incorporating the competing risk of death in each of these states. Simulations are used to translate these parameters into readily interpretable estimates of length of stay, the probability that a hospitalization will end in death, and the probability that a nonhospitalized person will be hospitalized within 90 days. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In multivariate analyses, participation in a Medicaid waiver program offering case management and home care was associated with hospital stays 1.3 days shorter than for nonparticipants. African American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with hospital stays 1.2 days and 1.0 day longer than for non-Hispanic whites; African Americans also experienced more frequent hospital admissions. Residents of the high-HIV-prevalence area of the state had more frequent admissions and stays two days longer than those residing elsewhere in the state. Older PWAs experienced less frequent hospital admissions but longer stays, with hospitalizations of 55-year-olds lasting 8.25 days longer than those of 25-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: Much socioeconomic and geographic variability exists both in the incidence and in the duration of hospitalization among persons with AIDS in New Jersey. Event history analysis provides a useful statistical framework for analysis of these variations, deals appropriately with data in which duration of observation varies from individual to individual, and permits the competing risk of death to be incorporated into the model. Transition models of this type have broad applicability in modeling the risk and duration of hospitalization in chronic illnesses. (+info)
The impact of a multidisciplinary approach on caring for ventilator-dependent patients.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and financial outcomes of a highly structured multidisciplinary care model for patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. The structured model outcomes (protocol group) are compared with the preprotocol outcomes. DESIGN: Descriptive study with financial analysis. SETTING: A twelve-bed medical-surgical ICU in a non-teaching tertiary referral center in Ogden, Utah. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: During a 54 month period, 469 consecutive intensive care patients requiring mechanical ventilation for longer than 72 hours who did not meet exclusion criteria were studied. INTERVENTIONS: A multidisciplinary team was formed to coordinate the care of ventilator-dependent patients. Care was integrated by daily collaborative bedside rounds, monthly meetings, and implementation of numerous guidelines and protocols. Patients were followed from the time of ICU admission until the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were assigned APACHE II scores on admission to the ICU, and were divided into eight diagnostic categories. ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, costs, charges, reimbursement, and in-hospital mortality were measured. RESULTS: Mortality in the preprotocol and protocol group, after adjustment for APACHE II scores, remained statistically unchanged (21-23%). After we implemented the new care model, we demonstrated significant decreases in the mean survivor's ICU length of stay (19.8 days to 14.7 days, P= 0.001), hospital length of stay (34.6 days to 25.9 days, P=0.001), charges (US$102500 to US$78500, P=0.001), and costs (US$71900 to US$58000, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a structured multidisciplinary care model to care for a heterogeneous population of ventilator-dependent ICU patients was associated with significant reductions in ICU and hospital lengths of stay, charges, and costs. Mortality rates were unaffected. (+info)
Reduction of laparoscopic-induced hypothermia, postoperative pain and recovery room length of stay by pre-conditioning gas with the Insuflow device: a prospective randomized controlled multi-center study.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of Insuflow (Georgia BioMedical, Inc.) filter heater hydrator device in reducing the incidence, severity and extent of hypothermia, length of recovery room stay and postoperative pain at the time of laparoscopy. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled multi-center study. Patients underwent gynecologic procedures via laparoscopy; surgeons, anesthesiologists and recovery room personnel assessed the results. SETTING: Seven North American institutions. PATIENTS: Seventy-two women for safety evaluation and efficacy studies. INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative pre-conditioning of laparoscopic gas with the Insuflow device (treatment) or standard raw gas (control) during laparoscopic surgery and postoperatively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence, severity and extent of hypothermia, postoperative pain perception and length of recovery room stay. RESULTS: The Insuflow group had significantly less intraoperative hypothermia, reduced length of recovery room stay and reduced postoperative pain. Pre-conditioning of laparoscopic gas by filtering heating and hydrating was well tolerated with no adverse effects. The safety profile of the Insuflow pre-conditioned gas showed significant benefits compared to currently used raw gas. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-conditioning laparoscopic gas by filtering heating and hydrating with the Insuflow device was significantly more effective than the currently used standard raw gas and was safe in reducing or eliminating laparoscopic-induced hypothermia, shortening recovery room length of stay and reducing postoperative pain. (+info)
As-required versus regular nebulized salbutamol for the treatment of acute severe asthma.
Current British guidelines for the administration of beta2-agonists in acute severe asthma recommend regular nebulized therapy in hospitalized patients, followed by as-required (p.r.n.) use via hand-held devices after discharge. Since beta2-agonists do not possess anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and are thus unlikely to influence the rate of recovery from an asthma exacerbation, it was hypothesized that patients given the short-acting beta2-agonist salbutamol on an as-required basis after admission to hospital would recover as quickly as those on regular treatment, but with potential reductions in the total dose delivered. Forty-six patients with acute severe asthma were randomly assigned to either regular prescriptions of nebulized salbutamol or to usage on a p.r.n. basis, from 24 h after hospital admission. The primary outcome measures were length of hospital stay, time to recovery, and frequency of salbutamol nebulization from 24 h after admission to discharge. Secondary outcome measures were treatment side-effects (tremor, palpitations), and patient satisfaction. Length of hospital stay was reduced in those patients allocated to p.r.n. salbutamol (geometric mean (GM) 3.7 days) versus regular salbutamol (GM 4.7 days). Time taken for peak expiratory flow to reach 75% of recent best was the same in both groups. There was a highly significant reduction in the number of times nebulized therapy was delivered to the p.r.n. group (GM 7.0, range 1-30) compared with the regular treatment group (GM 14.0, range 4-57; p=0.003; 95% confidence interval for ratio of GMs 1.29-3.09). In addition, patients reported less tremor (p=0.062) and fewer palpitations (p=0.049) in the p.r.n. group. Of the patients in the p.r.n. group who had received regular nebulized therapy on previous admissions (n=12), all preferred the p.r.n. regimen. Prescribing beta2-agonists on a p.r.n. basis from 24 h after hospital admission is associated with reduced amount of drug delivered, incidence of side-effects, and possibly length of hospital stay. This has implications for the efficient use of healthcare resources. (+info)
Endoscopic retreatment compared with surgery in patients with recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic control of bleeding ulcers.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: After endoscopic treatment to control bleeding of peptic ulcers, bleeding recurs in 15 to 20 percent of patients. In a prospective, randomized study, we compared endoscopic retreatment with surgery after initial endoscopy. Over a 40-month period, 1169 of 3473 adults who were admitted to our hospital with bleeding peptic ulcers underwent endoscopy to reestablish hemostasis. Of 100 patients with recurrent bleeding, 7 patients with cancer and 1 patient with cardiac arrest were excluded from the study; 48 patients were randomly assigned to undergo immediate endoscopic retreatment and 44 were assigned to undergo surgery. The type of operation used was left to the surgeon. Bleeding was considered to have recurred in the event of any one of the following: vomiting of fresh blood, hypotension and melena, or a requirement for more than four units of blood in the 72-hour period after endoscopic treatment. RESULTS: Of the 48 patients who were assigned to endoscopic retreatment, 35 had long-term control of bleeding. Thirteen underwent salvage surgery, 11 because retreatment failed and 2 because of perforations resulting from thermocoagulation. Five patients in the endoscopy group died within 30 days, as compared with eight patients in the surgery group (P=0.37). Seven patients in the endoscopy group (including 6 who underwent salvage surgery) had complications, as compared with 16 in the surgery group (P=0.03). The duration of hospitalization, the need for hospitalization in the intensive care unit and the resultant duration of that stay, and the number of blood transfusions were similar in the two groups. In multivariate analysis, hypotension at randomization (P=0.01) and an ulcer size of at least 2 cm (P=0.03) were independent factors predictive of the failure of endoscopic retreatment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with peptic ulcers and recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic control of bleeding, endoscopic retreatment reduces the need for surgery without increasing the risk of death and is associated with fewer complications than is surgery. (+info)
Hematocrit level and associated mortality in hemodialysis patients.
Although a number of clinical studies have shown that increased hematocrits are associated with improved outcomes in terms of cognitive function, reduced left ventricular hypertrophy, increased exercise tolerance, and improved quality of life, the optimal hematocrit level associated with survival has yet to be determined. The association between hematocrit levels and patient mortality was retrospectively studied in a prevalent Medicare hemodialysis cohort on a national scale. All patients survived a 6-mo entry period during which their hematocrit levels were assessed, from July 1 through December 31, 1993, with follow-up from January 1 through December 31, 1994. Patient comorbid conditions relative to clinical events and severity of disease were determined from Medicare claims data and correlated with the entry period hematocrit level. After adjusting for medical diseases, our results showed that patients with hematocrit levels less than 30% had significantly higher risk of all-cause (12 to 33%) and cause-specific death, compared to patients with hematocrits in the 30% to less than 33% range. Without severity of disease adjustment, patients with hematocrit levels of 33% to less than 36% appear to have the lowest risk for all-cause and cardiac mortality. After adjusting for severity of disease, the impact of hematocrit levels of 33% to less than 36% is vulnerable to the patient sample size but also demonstrates a further 4% reduced risk of death. Overall, these findings suggest that sustained increases in hematocrit levels are associated with improved patient survival. (+info)
Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement through a transverse sternotomy: a word of caution.
OBJECTIVES: To compare aortic valve replacement (AVR) using a minimally invasive approach through a transverse sternotomy with the established approach of median sternotomy. DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. PATIENTS: Fourteen high risk patients (median age 78, Parsonnet score of 18%) who underwent AVR performed through a minimally invasive transverse sternotomy were compared with a historical group of patients matched for age, sex, and Parsonnet score who underwent AVR performed through a median sternotomy by the same surgeon. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cross clamp time, total bypass time, intensive care stay, postoperative in-hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality. RESULTS: There were two deaths in the minimally invasive group and none in the control group (NS). The cross clamp and total bypass times were longer in the minimally invasive group (67 and 92 minutes v 46 and 66 minutes, p < 0.001). There was a higher incidence of re-exploration for bleeding (14% v 0%) and paravalvar leaks (21% v 0%) in the minimally invasive group but these differences were not significant. The minimally invasive group had a longer postoperative in-hospital stay (p = 0.025). The incidence of mortality or major morbidity was 43% (six of 14) in the minimally invasive group and 7% (one of 14) in the matched pairs (p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: AVR can be performed through a transverse sternotomy but the operation takes longer and there is an unacceptably high incidence of morbidity and mortality. (+info)