The ultrastructure of fibromyomatous myometrium and its relationship to infertility.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the ultrastructure of the non-neoplastic myometrial portion (host myometrium) of fibromyomatous uteri is normal or abnormal when compared to that of fibromyomata and normal myometria. Myometrial samples from 23 normal and 54 fibromyomatous uteri were examined at the ultrastructural level using standard electron microscopy techniques. Ultrastructural abnormalities of certain cellular organelles were noted in myocytes of fibromyomata but not in those of normal or host myometria. The sarcolemmal dense bands of host myometrial myocytes were of significantly greater length than those of normal myometria, but not significantly different to those of fibromyomata. Consequently, the numbers of caveolae in host myometria and fibromyomata are conceivably decreased in comparison to normal myometria. Host myometria can be, therefore, considered to be structurally abnormal. The specific structural abnormality noted may affect calcium metabolism in these tissues by causing a decrease in the cellular calcium extrusion mechanism and thus raising intracellular calcium concentrations. Such an abnormality may provide an answer, in terms of contraction abnormalities, for the unexplained infertility that occurs in a small percentage of symptomatic myomatous patients. (+info)
Oxytocin and vasopressin receptors in human and uterine myomas during menstrual cycle and early pregnancy.
The purpose of this study was to determine the specificity and concentration of oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) binding sites in non-pregnant (NP) human and rhesus monkey endometrium, myometrium and fibromyomas, and to determine the cellular localization of OT receptor (OTR). Besides [3H]AVP, [125I]LVA, a specific VP1 receptor subtype antagonist, was used to determine vasopressin receptor (VPR) concentrations. Samples were obtained from 42 pre-menopausal and three pregnant women (5, 13 and 35 weeks gestation), and several NP and pregnant monkeys. Specificity of binding was assessed in competition experiments with unlabelled agonists and antagonists of known pharmacological potency. Cellular localization of OTR was determined by immunohistochemistry. In NP human uterine tissues, [3H]AVP was bound with higher affinity and greater binding capacity than [3H]OT, whereas in pregnant women and in NP and pregnant rhesus monkeys, uterine OT binding capacity was greater. OT and AVP binding sites discriminated very poorly between OT and AVP; [125I]LVA binding sites were more selective than [3H]AVP. Their ligand specificity and binding kinetics indicated the presence of two distinct populations of binding sites for OT and AVP in primate uterus. Endometrium of NP women and monkeys had low OTR and VPR concentrations. Myometrial and endometrial OTR and VPR were down-regulated in midcycle and in early human pregnancy, they were up-regulated in the secretory phase and second half of pregnancy. Immunoreactive OTR in NP uterus was localized in patches of myometrial muscle cells and small numbers of endometrial epithelial cells. (+info)
Heparin inhibits proliferation of myometrial and leiomyomal smooth muscle cells through the induction of alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin h1 and p27.
Mast cells are widely distributed in human tissues, including the human uterus. However, the function of mast cells in uterine smooth muscle has not been clearly established. Mast cells possess secretory granules containing such substances as heparin, serotonin, histamine and many cytokines. To help establish the role of mast cells in the human myometrium, the action of heparin was investigated using smooth muscle cells (SMC) from normal myometrium and from leiomyoma. The proliferation of cultured myometrial and leiomyomal SMC was inhibited by heparin treatment. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the population in the G1 phase of the cell cycle increased under heparin treatment. Western blotting analysis showed that markers of SMC differentiation such as alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), calponin h1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 were induced by heparin, whereas cell-cycle-related gene products from the G1 phase of the cell cycle, such as cyclin E and cdk2, were not changed. Taken together, these results indicate that heparin inhibits the proliferation of myometrial and leiomyomal SMC through the induction of alpha-SMA, calponin h1 and p27. We suggest that heparin from mast cells may induce differentiation in uterine SMC and may influence tissue remodelling and reconstruction during physiological and pathophysiological events. (+info)
Frequent loss of heterozygosity for chromosome 10 in uterine leiomyosarcoma in contrast to leiomyoma.
Distinction of malignant uterine leiomyosarcomas from benign leiomyomas by morphological criteria is not always possible. Leiomyosarcomas typically have complex cytogenetic abnormalities; in contrast, leiomyomas have simple or no cytogenetic abnormalities. To understand better the biological distinction(s) between these tumors, we analyzed two other potential markers of genomic instability, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability. We examined archival materials from 16 leiomyosarcomas and 13 benign leiomyomas by polymerase chain reaction for 26 microsatellite polymorphisms. Markers were selected based on previous reports of cytogenetic or molecular genetic abnormalities in leiomyosarcomas or leiomyomas and surveyed chromosomes 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, and X. LOH for markers on chromosomes 15, 18, 21, and X was infrequent in leiomyosarcomas (1 of 6 tumors for each chromosome) and not observed for markers on chromosomes 7, 9, 11, 12, 14, or 16. Interestingly, 8 of 14 (57.2%) informative leiomyosarcomas had LOH for at least one marker on chromosome 10 and involved both chromosomal arms in 45.5% (5 of 11). In contrast to leiomyosarcomas, LOH for chromosome 10 was not found in 13 benign leiomyomas. Microsatellite instability was found infrequently in leiomyosarcomas and not detected in leiomyoma. Clinicopathological features (eg, atypia, necrosis, and clinical outcome) did not appear to correlate with LOH for chromosome 10. In contrast to other chromosomes studied, LOH on chromosome 10 was frequent in leiomyosarcomas and absent in benign leiomyomas. (+info)
Treatment of uterine fibroid with triptorelin before hysterectomy.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of pretreatment with triptorelin on uterine fibroid before abdominal hysterectomy. METHODS: Fifteen premenopausal Chinese women with symptomatic uterine fibroids requiring hysterectomy were recruited in the study. All patients received monthly intramuscular injections of 3.75 mg triptorelin for three months prior to abdominal hysterectomy. RESULTS: There was significant reduction in the serum levels of oestradiol (68.6%), progesterone (95.6%) and luteinizing hormone (73.9%) and in uterine (45.0%) and fibroid (68.0%) volumes. The serum level of follicle-stimulating hormone and haemoglobin concentration were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Shrinkage of uterine fibroids can be achieved in women who are rendered hypoestrogenic with monthly injections of triptorelin for three months. This treatment modality may be of value prior to hysterectomy or myomectomy especially when the fibroid is large. (+info)
Tumor vascular pattern and blood flow impedance in the differential diagnosis of leiomyoma and adenomyosis by color Doppler sonography.
PURPOSE: Our objective was to evaluate the differences between leiomyoma and adenomyosis by color Doppler sonography with new criteria. METHODS: A total of 78 patients with symptomatic uterine nodularities who were sonographically suspected to have leiomyoma or adenomyosis without other coexisting pathologic conditions was enrolled in the study. All patients underwent transvaginal color Doppler sonography (7.0-MHz vaginal probe) or transabdominal color Doppler sonography (5.0 MHz) during the early follicular phase. The morphology, tumor vascular pattern, and blood flow impedance of the uterine tumors were measured. All of the patients underwent surgery and the pathologic reports were used as references. RESULTS: The mean age was not statistically significant in patients with adenomyosis versus leiomyoma (P > 0.05). The morphologic criteria for adenomyosis and leiomyoma by sonography detected 79% of adenomyosis and 84% of leiomyoma. Adenomyosis had 87% randomly scattered vessels or intratumoral signals and 88% of leiomyomas showed peripheral scattered vessels or outer feeding vessels. Eighty-two percent of adenomyosis had a pulsitility index (PI) of arteries within or around uterine tumors > 1.17 and 84% of leiomyomas had a PI < or = 1.17. The reliability test of tumor vascular pattern and blood flow impedance were better than that of using morphological criteria alone. CONCLUSIONS: With the aid of color Doppler sonography, tumor vascular pattern and blood flow impedance of the arteries within or around uterine tumors could more accurately diagnose adenomyosis and leiomyoma in addition to the morphologic criteria on transvaginal sonography. (+info)
A case-control study to compare the variability of operating time in laparoscopic and open surgery.
The purpose of this study was to compare the variability of operating times for some of the most common gynaecological procedures performed laparoscopically and by open surgery. The case notes of 60 women randomly selected from a cohort of 600 who had undergone laparoscopic surgery for ectopic pregnancy, ovarian cysts, leiomyoma and hysterectomy were reviewed. These patients were matched with an equal number of women who had been treated by open surgery for similar indications. Additional matching criteria included age (+/-2 years), size of the lesion in cases of ovarian cysts and fibroids (+/-3 cm), the period of amenorrhoea in ectopic pregnancies, and uterine size and pelvic pathology in women undergoing hysterectomy. Comparison of laparoscopy and laparotomy showed that the mean procedure times were similar for the two routes of surgery, with the exception of hysterectomy which took significantly longer if done laparoscopically. The duration of laparoscopic surgery for ectopic pregnancy, ovarian cystectomy and hysterectomy was significantly less predictable than at laparotomy. These data indicate that with the exception of hysterectomy, the average operating time for laparoscopic procedures is comparable to that for laparotomy. In contrast, the variability of duration of laparoscopic surgery tends to be much greater than with laparotomy for all procedures considered. (+info)
Estrogen receptors (ERalpha/ERbeta) in normal and pathological growth of the human myometrium: pregnancy and leiomyoma.
The distributions of the mRNAs for estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) and their binding properties in myometria of pregnant and nonpregnant women and in leiomyoma were studied. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the term pregnancy myometria had little ERalpha mRNA, whereas the amounts of ERbeta mRNAs in pregnant or nonpregnant myometria appeared to be similar. Both ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA were greater in certain leiomyoma than in normal nonpregnant myometria. The binding kinetics revealed that two specific binding sites (with high or low affinity) for 17beta-estradiol were present in the nonpregnant myometrium. Only the low-affinity binding sites were detectable in late-pregnancy myometria and in leiomyoma, and their capacities were increased two- to threefold (P < 0.001) in leiomyoma. The pregnancy- and leiomyoma-related changes in myometrial ER status, especially the low concentration of ERalpha mRNA and the lack of high-affinity ER in pregnant women, plus the increased ERalpha and ERbeta mRNAs and the increased low-affinity ER in some leiomyoma, suggest that the redistribution of ER subtypes is associated with the pathological and/or normal growth of the myometrium. (+info)