Transformation of ministries of health in the era of health reform: the case of Colombia.
Ministries of health are being called upon to lead major health reforms; at the same time they must reform themselves to become more modern institutions and assume new and different functions and roles in the more dynamic reformed system. The literature on public administration and on health reform has recommended many processes of institutional reform and development, building on private sector management techniques, popularized by 'reinventing government' and 'total quality management'. More recently, thoughtful insights have emphasized improving public management through a focus on creating 'public value'; on political, as well as administrative, leadership; improving institutional performance through strengthening the 'task networks' of organizations needed to achieve strategic objectives; and creating a learning culture within the organization. This article applies these recent approaches to the specific needs of ministries of health in order to improve their capacity to lead major health reforms. This combined approach is then used to analyze and make recommendations to the Ministry of Health in Colombia where the authors were providing technical support for a major new health reform. (+info)
Physicians in training as quality managers: survival strategy for academic health centers.
Being responsible for medical education places academic health centers at a disadvantage in competing for managed care contracts. Although many suggestions have been made for changing medical education to produce physicians who are better prepared for the managed care environment, few studies have shown how physicians in training can actually contribute to the competitiveness of an academic health center. We present three examples of engaging trainees in projects with a population-based perspective that demonstrate how quality improvement for the academic health center can be operationalized and even led by physicians in training. In addition to gaining experience in a managed care skill that is increasingly important for future employment, physicians in training can simultaneously improve the quality of care delivered through the academic health center. (+info)
A multiple case study of implementation in 10 local Project ASSIST coalitions in North Carolina.
Community health promotion relies heavily on coalitions to address a multitude of public health issues. In spite of their widespread use, there have been very few studies of coalitions at various stages of coalition development. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that facilitated or impeded coalition effectiveness in the implementation stage of coalition development. The research design was a multiple case study with cross-case comparisons. Each of the 10 local North Carolina Project ASSIST coalitions constituted a case. Data collection included: semi-structured interviews, observation, document review, and surveys of members and staff. Some of the major factors that facilitated implementation included: the ability of the coalition to provide its own vision, staff with the skills and time to work with the coalition, frequent and productive communication, cohesion or a sense of belonging on the coalition, and complexity of the coalition structure during the intervention phase. Barriers to effective implementation included: staff turnover and staff lacking community organization skills, dependence on the state-level staff during the planning phase and lack of member input into the action plan. Conflict contributed to staff turnover, reluctance to conduct certain activities and difficulty in recruiting members, all of which had implications for implementation. (+info)
Library residencies and internships as indicators of success: evidence from three programs.
This paper discusses post-master's degree internships in three very different organizations; the University of Illinois at Chicago, the National Library of Medicine, and the Library of Congress. It discusses the internships using several questions. Do the programs serve as a recruitment strategy? Do the programs develop key competencies needed by the participant or organization? Do the programs develop leaders and managers? Is acceptance into a program an indicator of future career success? A survey was mailed to 520 persons who had completed internships in one of the three programs. There was a 49.8% response rate. Responses to fifty-four questions were tabulated and analyzed for each program and for the total group. The results confirm the value of internships to the career of participants. (+info)
The role of clinical practice guidelines in disease management.
This activity is designed for medical directors, pharmacy directors, quality assurance managers, and all members of disease management or quality improvement teams. GOAL: To review the guideline literature and help healthcare organizations plan guideline development and implementation strategies. OBJECTIVES: 1. Clarify the terminology used in practice policy development. 2. Explain how guideline implementation is related to disease management. 3. Discuss interventions utilized to enhance guideline adoption. 4. Provide a stepwise plan for healthcare organizations to follow. (+info)
The process of converting to a near filmless operation at the University of Utah, Department of Radiology.
The Department of Radiology at the University of Utah Health Sciences Center has made the transition from a traditional film-based department to a near filmless operation. The University of Utah is a large teaching hospital and the transition from film in an educational facility will be discussed. This transition has had its difficulties and its success is dependent on the support of departmental leadership and hospital administration. We have had more than 100 years of experience with film, and current procedures were efficient given the limitations of the medium. While motivated by the traditional reasons for moving to a picture archival and communications system (PACS), such as film savings, unavailable films, and faster reports, we found the intangibles to be the larger issue, as well as a source for the largest benefits. This report will discuss the implementation process and the affect it had on all areas of the hospital, including its impact on hospital physicians, radiologists, file room personnel, and technologists. Procedure changes to the flow of patients, film, and electronic images will also be described. This process cannot be viewed as a one-time change, but must be viewed as a continuous process as areas of improvement are identified and new and improved technologies are developed. (+info)
Adolescent alcohol use and the community health agenda: a study of leaders' perceptions in 28 small towns.
The study assessed leaders' perceptions of adolescent alcohol use as a public health issue in 28 small communities in northern Minnesota, as part of formative evaluation for a community-based intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol access and consumption. One hundred and eighteen leaders from five key community sectors were interviewed about their perceptions of social, health and alcohol-related problems in their communities. Analyses indicated that school representatives and police chiefs perceived adolescent alcohol use and related problems to be serious; newspaper editors mentioned other social problems more often; and mayors and business representatives did not perceive adolescent alcohol problems to be as serious. In relation to efforts to affect local policy, the study suggested government and business sectors in these communities may need to be educated about the problem to build its importance on the community agenda of health issues. Thus community leaders in some sectors may comprise a key target audience for intervention. (+info)
In memoriam of David P. Rall.
As a scientist, administrator, and diplomat, David P. Rall pioneered the effort to identify and understand the elements that make up the human environment and their consequences for human health. As an intellectual and aggressive activist, he educated scientists, governments, and the world community to the critical need to address the existence of environmental agents and their consequences for human health. As a leader he marshalled some of the best minds and hearts of his time to the cause of world health through a safe and clean environment. And as a visionary he provided the goals of environmental health science and the direction to guide both current and future generations. His death on September 28 brought to a close a chapter in the evolution of our understanding of the interconnectedness of human health and the environment, a chapter he was largely responsible for writing. (+info)