Arthroscopic findings in acute fractures of the ankle.
We have evaluated prospectively the arthroscopic findings in acute fractures of the ankle in 288 consecutive patients (148 men and 140 women) with a mean age of 45.6 years. According to the AO-Danis-Weber classification there were 14 type-A fractures, 198 type B and 76 type C. Lesions of the cartilage were found in 228 ankles (79.2%), more often on the talus (69.4%) than on the distal tibia (45.8%), the fibula (45.1%), or the medial malleolus (41.3%). There were more lesions in men than in women and in general they were more severe in men (p < 0.05). They also tended to be worse in patients under 30 years and in those over 60 years of age. The frequency and severity of the lesions increased from type-B to type-C fractures (p < 0.05). Within each type of fracture the lesions increased from subgroups 1 to 3 (p < 0.05). The anterior tibiofibular ligament was injured with increased frequency from type-B.1 to type-C3 fractures (p < 0.05), but it was not torn in all cases. While lateral ligamentous injuries were seen more often in type-B than in type-C fractures (p < 0.05), no difference was noted in the frequency of deltoid ligamentous lesions. Our findings show that arthroscopy is useful in identifying associated intra-articular lesions in acute fractures of the ankle. (+info)
Reconstruction of the lateral ligaments of the ankle using solvent-dried and gamma-irradiated allogeneic fascia lata.
We have described a method of anatomical reconstruction of the lateral ligaments of the ankles with instability using allogeneic fascia lata dried with solvents and sterilised with gamma irradiation. Twenty ankles of 20 patients were assessed objectively and subjectively after a mean follow-up of 4.2 years (3.1 to 10). The result was excellent in 12 (60%), good in seven (35%) and fair in one (5%); none had a poor result. Stress radiography showed that the angle of talar tilt improved from 12.3+/-4.2 degrees (mean +/- SD) to 5.9+/-3.0 degrees and that the anterior drawer distance decreased from 9.2+/-3.9 mm to 4.4+/-2.5 mm. Neither infection nor limitation of movement occurred after operation. Fascia lata allografts provide a good alternative to autogenous grafts such as the peroneus brevis tendon. (+info)
A long-term review of a modified Evans procedure.
Of 111 primary ankle ligament arthroplasties (modified Evans procedure) performed between 1983 and 1994, we were able to identify 89 patients (94 ankles) for follow-up. All were under 50 years of age. Two had died and one refused to co-operate; 86 patients (91 ankles) were therefore reviewed, 25 by telephone and the remainder by clinical examination with all but three also undergoing radiological review. Of the 91 ankles, 70 had no or very mild pain and 72 had no or rare episodes of instability and when considered together only 59 (65%) had no or mild pain and minimal instability. The results were supported by the Karlsson grading system. Clinical examination showed that 17 of the 66 ankles examined had increased inversion, while 21 had some limitation of inversion. Early degenerative changes were seen in 11 ankles, although only four had subtalar changes. These results show that this procedure does not give universally good clinical results. Patient satisfaction, however, was high with 97.7% being willing to undergo the same procedure if their other ankle became similarly affected. (+info)
Late-term reconstruction of lateral ankle ligaments using a split peroneus brevis tendon graft (Colville's technique) in patients with chronic lateral instability of the ankle.
We reviewed 14 patients with chronic lateral instability of the ankle treated by Colville's technique between 1996 and 2001. The mean patient age was 25 (20-35) years and all were men. The mean period between injury and surgery was 25 (18-32) months, and the mean follow-up was 20 (14-32) months. Twelve of the results were excellent and two were good according to the criteria of Chrisman and Snook. All patients returned to normal daily activity levels at an average of 6 months following surgery. (+info)
Rehabilitation of ligamentous ankle injuries: a review of recent studies.
There are many treatment modalities for ankle rehabilitation. These are reviewed, and the most effective training programme for rapid restoration of ankle movement, strength, endurance, and proprioception is selected. (+info)
A double blind, randomised, parallel group study on the efficacy and safety of treating acute lateral ankle sprain with oral hydrolytic enzymes.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and safety of the triple combination Phlogenzym (rutoside, bromelain, and trypsin) with double combinations, the single substances, and placebo. DESIGN: Multinational, multicentre, double blind, randomised, parallel group design with eight groups structured according to a factorial design. SETTING: Orthopaedic surgery and emergency departments in 27 European hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 721 patients aged 16-53 years presenting with acute unilateral sprain of the lateral ankle joint. PRIMARY EFFICACY CRITERIA: (a) Pain on walking one or two steps, as defined by the patient on a visual analogue scale. (b) The range of motion, as measured by the investigator and expressed as a sum of flexion and extension. (c) The volume of the injured ankle measured with a volometer. RESULTS: At the primary end point at seven days, the greatest reduction in pain was in the bromelain/trypsin group (73.7%). The Phlogenzym group showed a median reduction of 60.3%, and the placebo group showed a median reduction of 73.3%. The largest increase in range of motion (median) was in the placebo group (60% change from baseline). The Phlogenzym group showed a median increase of 42.9%. The biggest decrease in swelling was in the trypsin group (3.9% change from baseline). The Phlogenzym group showed a -2.30% change from baseline and the placebo group a -2.90% change. In the subgroup analysis of patients who did not use a Caligamed brace, Phlogenzym was superior to placebo for the summarising directional test of the primary efficacy criteria (MW = 0.621; LB-CI 0.496; p = 0.029; one sided Wei-Lachin procedure). The vast majority of doctors and patients rated the tolerability of all treatments tested as very good or at least good. CONCLUSIONS: Phlogenzym was not found to be superior to the three two-drug combinations, the three single substances, or placebo for treatment of patients with acute unilateral sprain of the lateral ankle joint. The small subgroup of patients treated without the support of a Caligamed brace showed evidence of superiority of Phlogenzym over placebo. Further research is warranted to study this effect of Phlogenzym in patients treated without ankle support. (+info)
Management of ankle sprains: a randomised controlled trial of the treatment of inversion injuries using an elastic support bandage or an Aircast ankle brace.
BACKGROUND: Lateral ligament ankle sprains are the single most common sports injury. OBJECTIVE: To determine the functional outcome of the ankle joint after a moderate or severe inversion injury, comparing standard treatment with an elastic support bandage against an Aircast ankle brace. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two accident and emergency departments. METHOD: Fifty patients presenting consecutively were randomised into two equal groups: one group was treated with an elastic support bandage and the other with an Aircast ankle brace. All patients were given a standardised advice sheet referring to rest, ice, compression, and elevation. Patients were reviewed after 48-72 hours, 10 days, and one month. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Ankle joint function assessed at 10 days and one month using the modified Karlsson scoring method (maximum score 90). SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The difference in ankle girth (swelling) and pain score at 10 days. RESULTS: Seventeen patients in the elastic support bandage group (six defaulted, two excluded) and 18 patients in the Aircast ankle brace group (six defaulted, one excluded) completed the study. There were no significant differences between the two groups at presentation in terms of age (mean 35.3 and 32.6 years respectively), sex, dominant leg, left or right ankle injured, previous injury, time to presentation (median three and four hours respectively), difference in ankle girth (mean 14.5 and 14.3 mm respectively), and pain scores (mean 6.2 and 5.8 respectively). The Karlsson score was significantly higher in the Aircast ankle cast group than in the elastic bandage group at 10 days (mean 50 v 35, p = 0.028, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7 to 27.7) and one month (mean 68 v 55, p = 0.029, 95% CI 1.4 to 24.8) (Student's t test). There was no difference between the groups in the secondary outcome measures (swelling, p = 0.09; pain, p = 0.07). When hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to correct for possible baseline confounding factors, the Aircast ankle brace group was significantly associated with higher Karlsson scores at 10 days (p = 0.009) and one month (p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: The use of an Aircast ankle brace for the treatment of lateral ligament ankle sprains produces a significant improvement in ankle joint function at both 10 days and one month compared with standard management with an elastic support bandage. (+info)
Dorsal calcaneocuboid ligament versus lateral ankle ligament repair: a case-control study.
OBJECTIVE: Anatomic reconstruction is the treatment of choice for lateral ankle ligament instability. A similar technique has recently been described for stabilisation of a chronic unstable calcaneocuboid joint as an alternative to the previously proposed tenodesis and arthrodesis procedures. METHODS: Five consecutive young females experiencing recurrent giving way of six calcaneocuboid joints were treated operatively during a 4 year period using anatomic ligament repair reinforced by a periosteal flap. Results were compared to five patients who underwent anatomic lateral ankle ligament repair in a case-control design. Outcome was measured using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, physical examination, and stress radiographic and MRI (calcaneocuboid group) investigation. Functional neuromuscular performance was evaluated by isokinetic torque measurements, posturometry, single-leg drop jumps, and single-leg long jumps. RESULTS: Outcome scores at follow up (5-61 months after surgery) revealed excellent results for both groups. No relevant difference was found between the affected legs and the non-affected legs or between groups with respect to the outcome measures. MRI exhibited ligament-like structures at the repaired dorsal calcaneocuboid joints in five out of six joints. CONCLUSIONS: Results of anatomic repair of unstable lateral ankle and isolated calcaneocuboid joint instability equally lead to excellent results. (+info)