The transmyocardial laser revascularization international registry report.
AIMS: This report aimed to provide an analysis of the data submitted from Europe and Asia on transmyocardial laser revascularization. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective data was recorded on 967 patients with intractable angina not amenable to conventional revascularization in 21 European and Asian centres performing transmyocardial laser revascularization using the PLC Medical Systems CO2 laser. Patient characteristics, operative details and early complications following transmyocardial laser revascularization were recorded. The in-hospital death rate was 9.7% (95% confidence interval 7.8% to 11.6%). Other early complications were consistent with similar cardiothoracic surgical procedures. There was a decrease of two or more Canadian Cardiovascular Score angina classes in 47.3%, 45.4% and 34.0% of survivors at 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up, respectively (P=0.001 for each). Treadmill exercise time increased by 42 s at 3 months (P=0.008), 1 min 43 s at 6 months (P<0.001) and 1 min 50 s at 12 months (P<0.001) against pre-operative times of 6 min. CONCLUSION: Uncontrolled registry data suggest that transmyocardial laser revascularization may lead to a decrease in angina and improved exercise tolerance. It does, however, have a risk of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Definitive results from randomized controlled trials are awaited. (+info)
Perioperative morbidity and mortality after transmyocardial laser revascularization: incidence and risk factors for adverse events.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence and spectrum of perioperative cardiac and noncardiac morbidity and mortality after transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) and to identify predictors of these adverse clinical events. BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of TMR for relieving angina pectoris, although no study to date has specifically addressed the associated perioperative morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Between October 1995 and August 1997, 34 consecutive patients with end-stage coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent isolated TMR. The majority of patients (94%) had class III or IV angina pectoris, and two patients (6%) had unstable symptoms preoperatively. Patient records were reviewed for fatal and nonfatal adverse cardiac and noncardiac events. RESULTS: Perioperative death occurred in two patients (5.9%) due to cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. Perioperative cardiac morbidity occurred in 16 patients (47.1%); noncardiac morbidity was seen in 12 patients (35.3%). Preoperative unstable angina was the only variable predictive of perioperative death (p = 0.005). Cardiac (p = 0.005) and noncardiac (p < 0.001) morbidity rates were significantly higher for the initial 15 patients undergoing the procedure. Other predictors of perioperative complications included lack of postoperative treatment with a furosemide infusion (p < or = 0.04) and preoperative unstable angina (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative mortality in patients undergoing isolated TMR is low. Transmyocardial laser revascularization patients are at higher risk for adverse perioperative cardiac and noncardiac events, likely reflecting the lack of immediate benefit from the procedure in the setting of severe CAD. These patients merit vigilant surveillance for adverse events and aggressive medical management in the perioperative period. (+info)
Failure of many ophthalmologists to use lasers safely.
In 1990, after the detection of impairment of colour discrimination in laser operators, the College of Ophthalmologists recommended safety guidelines for the use of lasers. We measured the effectiveness of these guidelines and their impact on ophthalmological practice in the United Kingdom. Previously, in ophthalmologists not following the guidelines, there was a deterioration in colour discrimination after a laser session. No such deterioration was found in 10 ophthalmologists tested who adhered to the guidelines, but their colour discrimination was significantly worse than that of controls. Replies to a questionnaire disclosed that one third of senior ophthalmologists were unaware of the practices recommended. (+info)
Transmyocardial laser revascularization: a qualitative systematic review.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the status of transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) from an evidence-based perspective to help hospitals make resource management decisions. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative systematic review of the clinical literature. METHODS: We searched the reference databases MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, SciSearch, and Current Contents to identify all articles related to TMLR published between January 1985 and March 1997. We collected, analyzed, and summarized clinical studies in evidence tables. RESULTS: The cumulative evidence available in the medical literature regarding the safety and effectiveness of TMLR encompasses approximately 2000 patients treated worldwide, primarily those with medically refractory angina. Preliminary data suggest that TMLR has an acceptable survival rate and effectively relieves angina in approximately 75% of patients. Data showing improved myocardial perfusion, cardiac function, or prognosis are inconclusive. The mechanism by which TMLR relieves angina is not yet known. CONCLUSIONS: Early evidence regarding TMLR suggests it will be useful for treating patients with end-stage coronary artery disease. Definitive recommendations await critical analysis of the results of ongoing randomized clinical trials, post-market surveillance studies, and third-party payer acceptance. (+info)
The use of internal limiting membrane maculorrhexis in treatment of idiopathic macular holes.
The purpose of this study was to assess surgical results of internal limiting membrane (ILM) maculorrhexis in macular hole surgery. This study is a part of continuing prospective clinical trial of our team of researchers. Thirteen eyes of 13 patients with idiopathic macular hole underwent vitrectomy with the removal of posterior cortical vitreous, peeling of the macular ILM, and intraocular gas tamponade, followed by postoperative face-down positioning. The excised specimens were evaluated with transmission electron microscopy. Complete closure of the hole was observed in all 13 eyes (100% anatomic success rate). Visual improvement of 2 or more lines on ETDRS visual acuity chart was achieved in 11 (85%) of the 13 eyes. Six (54.5%) eyes attained visual acuity of 20/50 or better. Electron microscopy showed ILM in the removed specimens. ILM maculorrhexis is a promising new surgical approach to close idiopathic macular holes but requires further investigation and long-term evaluation. (+info)
Streptococcal keratitis after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis.
A 24-year-old healthy male underwent uncomplicated laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in left eye. One day after the surgery, he complained of ocular pain and multiple corneal stromal infiltrates had developed in left eye. Immediately, the corneal interface and stromal bed were cleared, and maximal antibiotic treatments with fortified tobramycin (1.2%) and cefazolin (5%) were given topically. The causative organism was identified as 'Streptococcus viridans' both on smear and culture. Two days after antibiotic therapy was initiated, the ocular inflammation and corneal infiltrates had regressed and ocular pain was relieved. One month later, the patient's best corrected visual acuity had returned to 20/20 with -0.75 -1.00 x 10 degrees, however minimal stromal scarring still remained. This case demonstrates that microbial keratitis after LASIK, if treated promptly, does not lead to a permanent reduction in visual acuity. (+info)
Immediate intraocular pressure response to selective laser trabeculoplasty.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Selective laser trabeculoplasty targets the pigmented trabecular meshwork cells without damage to the trabecular meshwork architecture in vitro. A study was conducted in vivo of eight eyes with uncontrolled open angle glaucoma to ascertain the immediate intraocular response to selective laser trabeculoplasty. METHODS: The trabecular meshwork of each eye was treated 360 degrees with a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Intraocular pressure was measured 1, 2, 24 hours and 1, 4, 6 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: The average preoperative intraocular pressure was 26.6 (SD 7) mm Hg (range 18-37). Two hours and 6 weeks respectively after selective trabeculoplasty intraocular pressure was reduced in all the eyes treated with an average fall of 10.6 (5.2) mm Hg or 39.9%. A pressure spike of 10 mm Hg verified in one eye 1 hour after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Selective laser trabeculoplasty decreased intraocular pressure by an amount similar to that achieved with standard trabeculoplasty. Additional study is needed to determine whether the beneficial effect is sustained over a longer period of follow up. (+info)
In vitro evaluation of the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of photodynamic therapy.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was recently introduced in clinical practice for the management of cancer. As far as PDT relies on the combined action of a photosensitizer and a laser source, there is a need to evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of this treatment modality. This paper reports the effects of various photosensitizer and photo-irradiation doses on lethality to the MIA PaCa cell line using ZnPcS4 as the photosensitizer. The sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of various photosensitizer and photo-irradiation doses. Also, chromosomal aberrations at various time intervals post-irradiation were evaluated. The results showed that a combination of 3 J/cm2 irradiance with 5 microM ZnPcS4 concentration leads to the LD90 72 h post-irradiation. Eight days post-irradiation the LD90 level was achieved using a light dose of 3 J/cm2, independent of ZnPcS4 concentration. The SCE assay showed that cells treated with various light and drug doses presented no genotoxic potential, as SCE levels were not different from untreated (control) cells. Chromosomal analysis after PDT treatment at various time intervals post-irradiation showed that there was no significant chromosomal damage in cells treated photodynamically compared with untreated controls. The results show that the cell killing mechanism after PDT is not at the chromosome level, but may be at a different cellular level, such as plasma membranes, mitochondria, etc. (+info)