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(1/619) Broncholithiasis: rare but still present.

Broncholithiasis is a rare but distinct and potentially dangerous pulmonary problem that still needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of some patients with bronchial obstruction. Broncholiths originate from calcified material in peribronchial lymph nodes eroding into the tracheobronchial tree. The clinical and chest X-ray signs are usually non-specific, but the diagnosis can nowadays be made based on clinical suspicion, CT-scan and fibre-optic bronchoscopy findings, so that a malignant cause of airway obstruction can be ruled out. The removal of broncholiths during fibre-optic bronchoscopy is seldom possible and rather dangerous. They can be removed safely by rigid bronchoscopy with the aid of Nd-YAG laser photocoagulation. Thoracotomy is indicated in complicated cases with fistula formation or severe bleeding.  (+info)

(2/619) Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy.

Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC) is usually seen in young males with Type A personality. Clinical evaluation of the macula with fundoscopy and biomicroscopy, coupled with fluorescein angiography establishes the diagnosis. Indocyanine green angiographic studies have reinformed that the basic pathology lies in choriocapillaries and retinal pigment epithelium. Most of the ICSC resolve completely in four months, and some of them could resolve early with direct photocoagulation of the leaking site. Oral steroids have no role, and could even cause an adverse reaction.  (+info)

(3/619) Slow intramural heating with diffused laser light: A unique method for deep myocardial coagulation.

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation of postinfarction ventricular tachycardia (VT) may be limited by insufficient myocardial coagulation or excessive endocardial or epicardial damage. We propose that volumetric heating restricted to intramural sites may improve the outcome and safety of this procedure, especially if delivered at rates that enhance heat conduction and forestall adverse tissue changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A novel optical fiber with a diffusing tip for direct intramural, volumetric laser heating was tested via thoracotomy and percutaneously in normal dogs. Low-power (2.0- to 4.5-W) diode laser light (805 nm) diffused within tissue induced large lesions but no visible surface damage, mural thrombi, or transmural perforation. Mean lesion depth approximated tip length (10 mm). Mean lesion widths in the thoracotomy and percutaneous groups were 5.8+/-0.5 to 9.1+/-0.84 mm and 5.2+/-0.85 to 7.9+/-1.1 mm, respectively, depending on the light dose. Mean volumes in the percutaneous group were 1006+/-245 to 2471+/-934 mm. ST-segment depression, appearing in unfiltered bipolar electrograms recorded from the guiding catheter, was specific for lesion induction. All dogs survived the protocol, which included a 1-hour observation period. In cross section, lesions were elliptical to spherical and characterized by extensive contraction-band necrosis abruptly bordering viable tissue. No platelets or fibrin adhered to the endocardium. CONCLUSIONS: Slow, volumetric, and direct intramyocardial heating induces large, deep lesions without hazardous tissue damage. Such heating might cure postinfarction VT more successfully and safely than present techniques. Further testing and development of this method seem warranted.  (+info)

(4/619) Effect of diode laser trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation in the management of glaucoma after intravitreal silicone oil injection for complicated retinal detachments.

AIMS: To evaluate the effect of trans scleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in the eyes retaining intravitreal silicone oil with medically uncontrolled secondary glaucoma following intravitreal silicone oil injection. METHODS: Medical records of 11 eyes of 11 patients who underwent TSCPC for medically uncontrolled glaucoma without pupillary block following intravitreal silicone oil injection for complicated retinal detachment were reviewed retrospectively. In all cases, intravitreal silicone oil was not removed for fear of retinal redetachment. Diode laser contact TSCPC was performed at a power of 1.5-2.5 W, for a duration of 2 seconds, and with 20-27 applications. IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and success rate were evaluated. RESULTS: After a mean follow up period of 52.5 (SD 8.2) (range 42-68) weeks, the mean pretreatment level of IOP, 43.0 (14.4) (26-67) mmHg, had fallen to 14.5 (4.3) (7-20) mm Hg (p=0.003). The number of glaucoma medications was reduced from 2.6 (0.8) to 0.6 (1.0) (p= 0.005). Qualified success was achieved in nine eyes (81.8%) and complete success in six (54.5%). After TSCPC, patients' retinal status had not changed. CONCLUSION: Patients with medically uncontrolled glaucoma secondary to intravitreal silicone oil injection can be treated with TSCPC in spite of the retained intravitreal silicone oil.  (+info)

(5/619) Growth factor staining patterns in the pig retina following retinal laser photocoagulation.

AIM: To identify changes in growth factor expression in miniature pig retinas following retinal laser photocoagulation. METHODS: Pigs were sacrificed at different times (15 minutes to 42 days) post-laser and the retinas were immunolabelled for basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, transforming growth factor beta, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, platelet derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Total mRNA levels were also determined. RESULTS: With the exception of vascular endothelial growth factor, immunoreactivity for all other growth factors studied and epidermal growth factor receptor was observed throughout normal non-lasered control retina, generally being high in the retinal pigment epithelium and low in the neural retina. Changes in growth factor expression following laser photocoagulation were observed only in burn areas and changes were mainly confined to the retinal pigment epithelium and outer nuclear layer. The immunoreactivity within retinal pigment epithelial cells in burn areas was either absent or decreased following laser treatment but returned to normal by 21 days. The immunoreactivity was increased within the outer nuclear layer of burn areas during the healing process but returned to normal by 42 days. Vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity was weak/absent in the normal retina and remained unchanged following laser photocoagulation. Change of total mRNA levels in burn areas during time post-laser was confined to retinal pigment epithelial cells, being low immediately following photocoagulation and returning to normal by 42 days. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a temporal alteration in growth factor expression and transcriptional activity in the retina following laser photocoagulation.  (+info)

(6/619) Inhibitory effect of TNP-470 on experimental choroidal neovascularization in a rat model.

PURPOSE: To determine whether an angiogenic inhibitor, TNP- 470 (TNP), an analogue of fumagillin, inhibits choroidal neovascularization (CNV) induced by diode laser photocoagulation in a rat experimental model. METHODS: Fundus laser photocoagulation was performed on Brown Norway rats to induce CNV. In the treatment group, TNP was administered intraperitoneally at the time of laser photocoagulation and on day 7 (50 mg/kg at each time). The incidence of CNV formation was evaluated by fluorescein angiography. The retina was collected from the rats on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after laser photocoagulation, and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses for the expression of mRNA of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were carried out. Localization of bFGF mRNA was studied by in situ reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The numbers of positively labeled cells for bFGF mRNA were compared between the TNP treatment and control groups. RESULTS: The incidence of CNV formation was 22.7% in the TNP-treated rats and that in the control rats was 61.4% (P < 0.001). The semiquantitative PCR analyses showed that bFGF mRNA was upregulated on days 3 and 7 in the control rats, but no significant changes were found in TNP-treated rats. There was no detectable difference in VEGF gene expression between the control and TNP-treated rats. bFGF mRNA was detected by in situ RT-PCR in the regenerated retinal pigment epithelial cells and cells of the outer and inner nuclear layers of the control rats. The number of positive cells for bFGF mRNA in the TNP treatment group was significantly smaller than that of the control group (P < 0.05) on days 3 and 14. CONCLUSIONS: TNP- 470 treatment reduced the incidence of laser-induced CNV formation in this experimental model. The expression of bFGF associated with CNV formation was also significantly reduced by the TNP treatment.  (+info)

(7/619) Results of peripheral laser photocoagulation in pars planitis.

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of peripheral retinal laser photocoagulation (PLP) on visual acuity, intraocular inflammation, and other ocular findings, including retinal neovascularization in eyes with pars planitis. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of eyes with pars planitis that had undergone PLP. RESULTS: Twenty-two eyes in 17 patients with pars planitis had undergone treatment with PLP at 2 centers. The mean age at the time of treatment was 19.3 years. Following treatment, mean follow-up was 16.3 months (range, 6 to 37 months). Mean visual acuity was 20/60 preoperatively and 20/50 postoperatively. This level of improvement was not statistically significant (P > .10), but there was a statistically significant decrease in the use of corticosteroids between the preoperative examination and the last postoperative examination (86% versus 27%, P < .05). There was also a statistically significant decrease in vitritis at the last follow-up (P = .0008) and a decrease in neovascularization of the vitreous base (P = .03) and in clinically apparent cystoid macular edema (P = .02). Epiretinal membranes were noted in 23% of eyes preoperatively and in 45% of eyes postoperatively. Only one of these epiretinal membranes was considered to be visually significant. One eye developed a tonic dilated pupil, which slowly improved. CONCLUSIONS: Although the long-term natural history of clinical findings in pars planitis is not well documented, PLP appears to decrease the need for corticosteroids while stabilizing visual acuity. It also appears to decrease vitreous inflammation. PLP has few complications and should be considered in patients with pars planitis who are unresponsive or have adverse reactions to corticosteroids.  (+info)

(8/619) "Cyclodiode": results of a standard protocol.

AIMS: To analyse the results of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction in refractory glaucoma following diode laser cyclophotocoagulation with a repeatable standard protocol. METHODS: 58 eyes of 53 patients were followed for 6-37 months (mean 19 months) after initial cyclodiode treatment. RESULTS: Mean (SD) pretreatment IOP for the 58 eyes was 33.0 mm Hg (10.7) reducing at final index visit to 16.7 mm Hg (7.8) (p < 0.0001). The mean antiglaucoma medication score per eye was significantly reduced from 2.4 (0.8) to 1.4 (1.0) at last index visit (p < 0.0001) with 91% of patients able to stop oral acetazolamide. 45% of eyes required more than one treatment and the overall mean per eye was 1.6 (range 1-5). Of eyes with visual acuity 6/60 or better pretreatment, 12 (32%) lost more than two lines of Snellen acuity and two eyes with poorer acuity initially dropped to NPL. Poor visual outcome was associated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy. Hypotony (IOP < 5 mm Hg) was noted in two eyes at the last index visit although neither had specific signs of the same. No phthisis was seen. CONCLUSION: The simple treatment protocol, repeated if necessary, appears relatively safe and effective at lowering IOP in eyes with refractory glaucoma.  (+info)