Effect of probiotic bacteria on prevalence of yeasts in oropharyngeal biofilms on silicone rubber voice prostheses in vitro. (1/45)

The proliferation of yeasts in the mixed bacterial and fungal biofilms colonising silicone rubber voice prostheses in laryngectomised patients is the main cause of malfunctioning of the valve mechanism on the oesophageal side of the prostheses. Indwelling voice prostheses usually have to be replaced every 3-4 months. The consumption of probiotic bacteria is largely motivated by health claims related to the urogenital and lower digestive tract, but not to the upper digestive tract. The present study examined the influence of probiotic bacteria on the prevalence of yeasts in oropharyngeal biofilms on silicone rubber voice prostheses, as formed in a modified Robbins device. Exposure of oropharyngeal biofilms on voice prostheses to suspensions of Bifidobacterium infantis 420 or Enterococcus faecium 603 did not significantly reduce the number of yeasts in the biofilm. However, suspensions of Lactobacillus fermentum B54, L. rhamnosus 744 or L. lactis cremoris SK11 led to a reduction in the number of yeasts harvested from the voice prostheses. Suspensions of L. casei Shirota and Streptococcus thermophilus B significantly reduced the number of yeasts in the biofilm to 39% and 33%, respectively. The reduction brought about in yeast prevalence in the mixed biofilm was greatest by exposure to a suspension of L. lactis 53, with yeast prevalence only 4% of the control. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that the prevalence of yeasts in oropharyngeal biofilms on silicone rubber voice prostheses might be controlled by consumption of probiotic bacteria.  (+info)

Voice rehabilitation after total laryngectomy and postoperative radiation therapy. (2/45)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy and postoperative irradiation for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between December 1983 and December 1998, 173 patients underwent a total laryngectomy and postoperative irradiation and had follow-up from 3 to 188 months (median, 38 months). Three patients were lost to follow-up at 63, 39, and 4 months after treatment. All other living patients had follow-up for 2 years or longer. Twelve (7%) patients had incomplete data pertaining to voice rehabilitation. RESULTS: Data pertaining to voice rehabilitation were available at 2 to 3 years and longer and 5 years and longer after treatment for 118 and 69 patients, respectively. The methods of voice rehabilitation at 2 to 3 years and longer and 5 years and longer were as follows: tracheoesophageal, 27% and 19%; artificial larynx, 50% and 57%; esophageal, 1% and 3%; nonvocal, 17% and 14%; and no data, 5% and 7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The most common form of voice rehabilitation after total laryngectomy and postoperative radiation therapy is the artificial larynx. Although the tracheoesophageal puncture is a technique frequently promoted by clinicians as a superior method, a relatively small subset of patients are successfully rehabilitated long-term. However, of those who undergo a tracheoesophageal puncture, approximately half will use this method of voice rehabilitation long term.  (+info)

Voice restoration with low pressure blom singer voice prosthesis after total laryngectomy. (3/45)

The main problem after total laryngectomy is permanent loss of voice. Current methods of vocal rehabilitation after total laryngectomy include development of esophageal speech, use of artificial larynx, tracheoesophageal shunt operations and more recently surgical restoration of the voice with prosthesis. Primary voice restoration using Blom- Singer voice prosthesis after total laryngectomy and pharyngeal myotomy was performed in 187 patients between October 1992 and July 2000. There were 184 male and 3 female patients of average age 63.7 years (range 42-76). Mean follow up period was 62 months. Satisfactory speech was achieved in 156 patients (83.5%). During the follow-up period, we experienced complaints of insufficient voice in 31 (16.5%) patients, due to partial spasm in 17 and total spasm in the pharyngoesophageal segment in 14. Furthermore, 24 (12.8%) patients preferred esophageal speech or electro larynx because of low socioeconomic level. The overall success rate was 70.7%. In this study the results of the surgical technique and prosthesis insertion, as well as the associated complications and socioeconomic levels of the patients, are discussed.  (+info)

Influence of biosurfactants from probiotic bacteria on formation of biofilms on voice prostheses. (4/45)

Biofilms were grown on preconditioned voice prostheses with biosurfactants obtained from probiotic bacteria Lactococcus lactis 53 and Streptococcus thermophilus A in an artificial throat model. Both biosurfactants greatly reduced microbial numbers on prostheses and also induced a decrease in the airflow resistance that occurs on voice prostheses after biofilm formation. This study presents a promising strategy for prolonging the lifespan of voice prostheses.  (+info)

Recurrent colonization of successively implanted tracheoesophageal vocal prostheses by a member of the Fusarium solani species complex. (5/45)

Tracheoesophageal vocal prostheses (TVP) in laryngectomized patients commonly deteriorate due to overgrowth by yeasts, particularly Candida species. We describe the first case of colonization of such devices by a member of the Fusarium solani species complex in a patient with a history of glottal carcinoma. Three isolates, from three prostheses, were found morphologically consistent with the traditional picture of F. solani. Ribosomal sequence analysis showed that the isolates belonged to a distinct, as yet apparently unnamed phylogenetic species within the F. solani species complex. This species, one of two distinct genetic types (genotype 2) traditionally considered part of the plant-pathogenic subtaxon Fusarium solani f. sp. radicicola, has not previously been identified as an agent of human or animal disease, although it is closely related to a known etiologic agent of mycetoma, an Acremonium-like species recently renamed Fusarium falciforme. Sequence and multisatellite M13 polymorphism analysis revealed no distinctions among the case isolates. Production of cyclosporine was detected for all three case isolates.  (+info)

A new self-administered questionnaire to determine patient experience with voice prostheses (Blom-Singer valves). (6/45)

AIM: To obtain information about valved speech and related issues in patients who have undergone total laryngectomy with the help of a new structured questionnaire on voice prosthesis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A questionnaire-based pilot study set at a tertiary referral head and neck cancer unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients using voice prostheses, who showed no signs of recurrence after having undergone total laryngectomy were interviewed with the help of a questionnaire that assessed issues such as voice quality, valve maintenance, leakage, quality of life, humidification and hands-free system over the preceding seven days. The data was analyzed using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Spearman rank). RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (16 males) with a median age of 65 years (IQ range: 59-70 years) had been using the prosthesis for a median of 6 years (IQ range: 5-10 years). The majority of the patients (n=20) were fully informed about their valve size and diameter and most were able to remove and replace their own prosthesis. Fourteen patients (60%) had leakage-related issues. Women were less satisfied with their voice quality as compared to men. Overall, there appeared to be an improvement in quality of life with the use of the voice prosthesis. CONCLUSIONS: The subjects were fairly well informed about their valve and experienced a high level of satisfaction with their voice. This questionnaire serves as a valuable tool for monitoring voice rehabilitation in patients who have undergone laryngectomy.  (+info)

Speech rehabilitation after total laryngectomy: long-term results with indwelling voice prosthesis Blom-Singer. (7/45)

To evaluate long-term use of indwelling Blom-Singer voice prosthesis (VP) for vocal rehabilitation of patients submitted to total laryngectomy (TL). We studied the influence of time of performance of tracheo-esophageal puncture (TEP), use of radiotherapy (XRT), patients' age and length of follow-up, on the rate of success of use of VP. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Seventy-one patients were submitted to TL and rehabilitated with indwelling VP. Both otolaryngologist and speech pathologist evaluated all patients for the vocal functional issues during the follow-up. The relative data on time of placement of VP, time of use of PF, use of XRT, age, length of follow-up and interval of duration of each VP were recorded during the follow-up. RESULTS: There was 87% of patients with primary TEP and 13% with secondary. The follow-up varied from 12 to 87 months, with average of 38 months for primary and 51 months for secondary TEP. There were 59% of patients submitted to XRT. The general rate of success was of 94%. In primary TEP it was of 97% and in the secondary, it was 78% (p=0.07) and after two years, the success rate was of 96% in primary TEP and 75% in secondary TEP (p=0.07). The use of XRT and patient age did not influence the success of use of VP among primary and secondary TEP, independently of length of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Tendency to greater success rate in voice rehabilitation after TL with primary TEP was observed. Postoperative XRT and age did not influence success rate.  (+info)

Case of the month: Dislodged tracheo-oesophageal valve: importance of rapid replacement or stenting. (8/45)

Dislodgement of a tracheo-oesophageal prosthesis needs prompt action to ensure patency and prevent aspiration in patients with total laryngectomy. Failure to do so may lead to an unnecessary repeat tracheo-oesophageal puncture. This case report is about a patient who needed a repeat procedure under general anaesthetic. It highlights the need for emergency physicians to be aware of this not uncommon event in a patient with a laryngectomy and to refer them immediately for ENT review.  (+info)