Predominant inhibition of ganodermic acid S on the thromboxane A2-dependent pathway in human platelets response to collagen.
Ganodermic acid S (GAS), a membrane acting agent, exerts multiple effects on human platelet function (C.N. Wang et al. (1991) Biochem. J. 277, 189-197). The study reported how GAS affected the response of human gel-filtered platelets (GFP) to collagen. The agent inhibited cell aggregation by prolonging lag and shape change periods and decreasing the initial cell aggregation rate. However, the inhibitory efficiency was less than its inhibition on GFP response to U46619, a thromboxane (TX) A2 mimetic. In the agent-effect on biochemical events, GAS effectively inhibited Ca2+ mobilization, phosphorylation of myosin light chain, dense granule secretion and TXB2 generation. The inhibitions might originate from blocking Ca2+ mobilization of the TXA2-dependent pathway. GAS partially decreased the phosphorylation of most phosphotyrosine proteins from early activation to the integrin alphaIIbbeta3-regulated steps. The agent did not affect the phosphorylation of three proteins at the steps regulated by integrin alphaIIbbeta3. The results suggest that GAS inhibits the collagen response predominantly on the TXA2-dependent signaling, and the tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway in collagen response plays a major role in aggregation. (+info)
Cholesterol biosynthesis from lanosterol. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, expression, chromosomal localization, and regulation of rat 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, a Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome-related protein.
The cDNA encoding the 471-amino acid rat 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR), an enzyme that has been implicated in both cholesterol biosynthesis and developmental abnormalities (e.g. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome) in mammals, has been cloned and sequenced, and the primary structure of the enzyme has been deduced. The DHCR gene was mapped to chromosome 8q2.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Rat DHCR, calculated molecular mass of 54.15-kDa polypeptide, shares a close amino acid identity with mouse and human DHCRs (96 and 87%, respectively) as compared with its other related proteins (e.g. fungal sterol Delta14-reductase) and exhibits high hydrophobicity (>68%) with 9 transmembrane domains. Five putative sterol-sensing domains were predicted to be localized in transmembrane domains 4-8, which are highly homologous to those found in 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein, and patched protein. The polypeptide encoded by DHCR cDNA was expressed in yeast as a 55.45-kDa myc-tagged fusion protein, which was recognized with anti-myc monoclonal antibody 9E10 and shown to possess full DHCR activity with respect to dependence on NADPH and sensitivity to DHCR inhibitors. Northern blot analysis indicates that the highest expression of DHCR mRNA was detected in liver, followed by kidney and brain. In rat brains, the highest level of mRNA encoding DHCR was detected in the midbrain, followed by the spinal cord and medulla. Feeding rats 5% cholestyramine plus 0.1% lovastatin in chow resulted in both approximately a 3-fold induction of DHCR mRNA and a 5-fold increase of the enzymic activity in the liver. When rats were fed 0.1% (w/w) AY-9944 (in chow) for 14-days, a complete inhibition of DHCR activity and a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol level were observed. However, the level of hepatic DHCR mRNA fell only slightly, suggesting that AY-9944 may act more rapidly at the protein level than at the level of transcription of the DHCR gene under these conditions. (+info)
Sterol content of the Myxomycetes Physarum polycephalum and P. flavicomum.
The sterol content of two Myxomycetes, Physarum polycephalum and P. flavicomum has been examined. The sterols of the two species are apparently identical, the two major sterols in each being poriferasterol and 22-dihydroporiferasterol. Threee minor sterols are probably delta5-ergostenol, ergostanol, and poriferastanol. The triterpenoids of the two species differ in that, though lanosterol was identified in both, 22-dihydrolanosterol was indicated only in P. flavicomum. The occurrence of lanosterol together with a typical mixture of plant sterols is somewhat unusual. (+info)
Cholesterol starvation decreases p34(cdc2) kinase activity and arrests the cell cycle at G2.
As a major component of mammalian cell plasma membranes, cholesterol is essential for cell growth. Accordingly, the restriction of cholesterol provision has been shown to result in cell proliferation inhibition. We explored the potential regulatory role of cholesterol on cell cycle progression. MOLT-4 and HL-60 cell lines were cultured in a cholesterol-deficient medium and simultaneously exposed to SKF 104976, which is a specific inhibitor of lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase. Through HPLC analyses with on-line radioactivity detection, we found that SKF 104976 efficiently blocked the [(14)C]-acetate incorporation into cholesterol, resulting in an accumulation of lanosterol and dihydrolanosterol, without affecting the synthesis of mevalonic acid. The inhibitor also produced a rapid and intense inhibition of cell proliferation (IC(50) = 0.1 microM), as assessed by both [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell counting. Flow cytometry and morphological examination showed that treatment with SKF 104976 for 48 h or longer resulted in the accumulation of cells specifically at G2 phase, whereas both the G1 traversal and the transition through S were unaffected. The G2 arrest was accompanied by an increase in the hyperphosphorylated form of p34(cdc2) and a reduction of its activity, as determined by assaying the H1 histone phosphorylating activity of p34(cdc2) immunoprecipitates. The persistent deficiency of cholesterol induced apoptosis. However, supplementing the medium with cholesterol, either in the form of LDL or free cholesterol dissolved in ethanol, completely abolished these effects, whereas mevalonate was ineffective. Caffeine, which abrogates the G2 checkpoint by preventing p34(cdc2) phosphorylation, reduced the accumulation in G2 when added to cultures containing cells on transit to G2, but was ineffective in cells arrested at G2 by sustained cholesterol starvation. Cells arrested in G2, however, were still viable and responded to cholesterol provision by activating p34(cdc2) and resuming the cell cycle. We conclude that in both lymphoblastoid and promyelocytic cells, cholesterol availability governs the G2 traversal, probably by affecting p34(cdc2) activity. (+info)
Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG27 gene encoding the 3-keto reductase involved in C-4 sterol demethylation.
The last unidentified gene encoding an enzyme involved in ergosterol biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been cloned. This gene, designated ERG27, encodes the 3-keto sterol reductase, which, in concert with the C-4 sterol methyloxidase (ERG25) and the C-3 sterol dehydrogenase (ERG26), catalyzes the sequential removal of the two methyl groups at the sterol C-4 position. We developed a strategy to isolate a mutant deficient in converting 3-keto to 3-hydroxy-sterols. An ergosterol auxotroph unable to synthesize sterol or grow without sterol supplementation was mutagenized. Colonies were then selected that were nystatin-resistant in the presence of 3-ketoergostadiene and cholesterol. A new ergosterol auxotroph unable to grow on 3-ketosterols without the addition of cholesterol was isolated. The gene (YLR100w) was identified by complementation. Segregants containing the YLR100w disruption failed to grow on various types of 3-keto sterol substrates. Surprisingly, when erg27 was grown on cholesterol- or ergosterol-supplemented media, the endogenous compounds that accumulated were noncyclic sterol intermediates (squalene, squalene epoxide, and squalene dioxide), and there was little or no accumulation of lanosterol or 3-ketosterols. Feeding experiments in which erg27 strains were supplemented with lanosterol (an upstream intermediate of the C-4 demethylation process) and cholesterol (an end-product sterol) demonstrated accumulation of four types of 3-keto sterols identified by GC/MS and chromatographic properties: 4-methyl-zymosterone, zymosterone, 4-methyl-fecosterone, and ergosta-7,24 (28)-dien-3-one. In addition, a fifth intermediate was isolated and identified by (1)H NMR as a 4-methyl-24, 25-epoxy-cholesta-7-en-3-one. Implications of these results are discussed. (+info)
Contribution of Are1p and Are2p to steryl ester synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferases (ASATs) that catalyze the synthesis of steryl esters have been identified, namely Are2p (Sat1p) and Are1p (Sat2p). Deletion of either ARE1 or ARE2 has no effect on cell viability, and are1are2 double mutants grow in a similar manner to wild-type despite the complete lack of cellular ASAT activity and steryl ester formation [Yang, H., Bard, M., Bruner, D. A., Gleeson, A., Deckelbaum, R. J., Aljinovic, G., Pohl, T. M., Rothstein, R. & Sturley, S. L. (1996) Science 272, 1353-1356; Yu, C., Kennedy, J., Chang, C. C. Y. & Rothblatt, J. A. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 24157-24163]. Here we show that both Are2p and Are1p reside in the endoplasmic reticulum as demonstrated by measuring ASAT activity in subcellular fractions of are1 and are2 deletion strains. This localization was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy using hybrid proteins of Are2p and Are1p fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Lipid analysis of are1 and are2 deletion strains revealed that Are2p and Are1p utilize sterol substrates in vivo with different efficiency; Are2p has a significant preference for ergosterol as a substrate, whereas Are1p esterifies sterol precursors, mainly lanosterol, as well as ergosterol. The specificity towards fatty acids is similar for both isoenzymes. The lack of steryl esters in are1are2 mutant cells is largely compensated by an increased level of free sterols. Nevertheless, terbinafine, an inhibitor of ergosterol biosynthesis, inhibits growth of are1are2 cells more efficiently than growth of wild-type. In a growth competition experiment are1are2 cells grow more slowly than wild-type after several rounds of cultivation, suggesting that Are1p and Are2p or steryl esters, the product formed by these two enzymes, are more important in the natural environment than under laboratory conditions. (+info)
Sterol metabolism and ERG2 gene regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Certain exogenously-supplied sterols, like ergost-8-enol, are efficiently converted into ergosterol in yeast. We have taken advantage of this property to study the regulation of the Delta8-Delta7-sterol isomerase-encoding ERG2 gene in an ergosterol auxotrophic mutant devoid of squalene-synthase activity. Ergosterol starvation leads to an 8-16-fold increase in ERG2 gene expression. Such an increase was also observed in wild-type cells either grown anaerobically or treated with SR31747A a sterol isomerase inhibitor. Exogenously-supplied zymosterol is entirely transformed into ergosterol, which represses ERG2 transcription. By contrast, exogenously-supplied ergosterol has little or no effect on ERG2 transcription. (+info)
Effect of inhibition of sterol delta 14-reductase on accumulation of meiosis-activating sterol and meiotic resumption in cumulus-enclosed mouse oocytes in vitro.
Two sterols of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway induce resumption of meiosis in mouse oocytes in vitro. The sterols, termed meiosis-activating sterols (MAS), have been isolated from human follicular fluid (FF-MAS, 4,4-dimethyl-5 alpha-cholest-8,14,24-triene-3 beta-ol) and from bull testicular tissue (T-MAS, 4,4-dimethyl-5 alpha-cholest-8,24-diene-3 beta-ol). FF-MAS is the first intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis from lanosterol and is converted to T-MAS by sterol delta 14-reductase. An inhibitor of delta 7-reductase and delta 14 reductase, AY9944-A-7, causes cells with a constitutive cholesterol biosynthesis to accumulate FF-MAS and possibly other intermediates between lanosterol and cholesterol. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether AY9944-A-7 added to cultures of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) from mice resulted in accumulation of MAS and meiotic maturation. AY9944-A-7 stimulated dose dependently (5-25 mumol l-1) COC to resume meiosis when cultured for 22 h in alpha minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM) containing 4 mmol hypoxanthine l-1, a natural inhibitor of meiotic maturation. In contrast, naked oocytes were not induced to resume meiosis by AY9944-A-7. When cumulus cells were separated from their oocytes and co-cultured, AY9944-A-7 did not affect resumption of meiosis, indicating that intact oocyte-cumulus cell connections are important for AY9944-A-7 to exert its effect on meiosis. Cultures of COC with 10 mumol AY9944-A-7 l-1 in the presence of [3H]mevalonic acid, a natural precursor for steroid synthesis, resulted in accumulation of labelled FF-MAS, which had an 11-fold greater amount of radioactivity incorporated per COC compared with the control culture without AY9944-A-7. In contrast, incorporation of radioactivity into the cholesterol fraction was reduced 30-fold in extracts from the same oocytes. The present findings demonstrate for the first time that COC can synthesize cholesterol from mevalonate and accumulate FF-MAS in the presence of AY9944-A-7. Furthermore, AY9944-A-7 stimulated meiotic maturation dose dependently, indicating that FF-MAS, and possibly other sterol intermediates of the cholesterol synthesis pathway, play a central role in stimulating mouse oocytes to resume meiosis. The results also indicate that oocytes may not synthesize steroids from mevalonate. (+info)