Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors.
The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel. (+info)
Binding of the G domains of laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains and perlecan to heparin, sulfatides, alpha-dystroglycan and several extracellular matrix proteins.
The C-terminal G domain of the mouse laminin alpha2 chain consists of five lamin-type G domain (LG) modules (alpha2LG1 to alpha2LG5) and was obtained as several recombinant fragments, corresponding to either individual modules or the tandem arrays alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5. These fragments were compared with similar modules from the laminin alpha1 chain and from the C-terminal region of perlecan (PGV) in several binding studies. Major heparin-binding sites were located on the two tandem fragments and the individual alpha2LG1, alpha2LG3 and alpha2LG5 modules. The binding epitope on alpha2LG5 could be localized to a cluster of lysines by site-directed mutagenesis. In the alpha1 chain, however, strong heparin binding was found on alpha1LG4 and not on alpha1LG5. Binding to sulfatides correlated to heparin binding in most but not all cases. Fragments alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5 also bound to fibulin-1, fibulin-2 and nidogen-2 with Kd = 13-150 nM. Both tandem fragments, but not the individual modules, bound strongly to alpha-dystroglycan and this interaction was abolished by EDTA but not by high concentrations of heparin and NaCl. The binding of perlecan fragment PGV to alpha-dystroglycan was even stronger and was also not sensitive to heparin. This demonstrated similar binding repertoires for the LG modules of three basement membrane proteins involved in cell-matrix interactions and supramolecular assembly. (+info)
Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in cervical squamous cell carcinoma--a clinicopathological study.
AIM: To evaluate the intracellular and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: 71 squamous cell carcinomas and 10 controls were stained for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV. Cytoplasmic staining in tumour cells and peritumoral deposition of matrix proteins were evaluated. The association between staining results and patient age, tumour stage, histological grade, and survival was studied. RESULTS: Positive cytoplasmic staining for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV was observed in 17 (23.9%), 27 (38%), and 10 (14.1%) cases, respectively. Staining for laminin was most pronounced in the invasive front of tumour islands, while for fibronectin and collagen IV it appeared to be diffuse. Peritumoral staining for laminin and collagen IV was detected in 12 cases (16.9%). Early stage (Ia1-Ia2) tumours were uniformly negative for all three proteins. Cytoplasmic staining for laminin correlated with positive staining for fibronectin and collagen IV, and with the presence of a peritumoral deposition of collagen IV and laminin. There was no correlation with any of the three markers between staining results and patient age, stage, grade, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in some cervical squamous cell carcinomas might reflect the enhanced ability of these tumours to modify the peritumoral stroma. This ability seems to be absent in early stage tumours. The correlation between intracytoplasmic and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins supports the evidence of their synthesis by tumour cells. However, this property did not correlate with disease outcome in this study. (+info)
alphaSU2, an epithelial integrin that binds laminin in the sea urchin embryo.
At gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo dramatic cell adhesion changes contribute to primary mesenchyme cell ingression movements and to cell rearrangements during archenteron invagination. At ingression, quantitative adhesion assays demonstrated previously that primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) change their affinity for neighboring cells, for a fibronectin-like substrate, and for the hyaline layer. To investigate the molecular basis for these and other differential cell affinities at gastrulation, we have identified an integrin that appears to be responsible for specific alterations in cell-substrate adhesion to laminin. During early cleavage stages blastomeres adhere poorly to laminin substrates. Around hatching there is a large increase in the ability of blastomeres to bind to laminin and this increase correlates temporally with the expression of an integrin on the basal surface all blastomeres. PMCs, after undergoing their epithelial-mesenchymal transition, have a strongly reduced affinity for laminin relative to ectoderm cells and, correspondingly, do not stain for the presence of the integrin. We identified the alpha integrin cDNA from Lytechinus variegatus by RT-PCR. Overlapping clones were obtained from a midgastrula cDNA library to provide a complete sequence for the integrin. The composite cDNA encoded a protein that was most similar to the alpha5 subgroup of vertebrate integrins, but there was not a definitive vertebrate integrin homolog. Northern blots and Western immunoblots showed that the sea urchin integrin, which we have named alphaSU2, is present in eggs and during all stages of development. Immunolocalization with specific polyclonal antibodies showed that alphaSU2 first appears on the basal cell surface of epithelia at the midblastula stage, at a time correlating with the increase in adhesive affinity for laminin. The protein remains at high levels on the basal surface of ectoderm cells but is temporarily reduced or eliminated from endoderm cells during their convergent-extension movements. To confirm integrin binding specificity, alphaSU2 was transfected into an alpha-integrin-deficient CHO cell line. alphaSU2-expressing CHO cells bound well to isolated sea urchin basal lamina and to purified laminin. The transfected cells bound weakly or not at all to fibronectin, type I collagen, and type IV collagen. This is consistent with the hypothesis that alphaSU2 integrin functions by binding epithelial cells to laminin in the basal lamina. In vivo, modulation of alphaSU2 integrin expression correlates with critical adhesive changes during cleavage and gastrulation. Thus, this protein appears to be an important contributor to the morphogenetic rearrangements that characterize gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo. (+info)
The role of cell adhesion molecules in Drosophila heart morphogenesis: faint sausage, shotgun/DE-cadherin, and laminin A are required for discrete stages in heart development.
Heart development in the Drosophila embryo starts with the specification of cardiac precursors from the dorsal edge of the mesoderm through signaling from the epidermis. Cardioblasts then become aligned in a single row of cells that migrate dorsally. After contacting their contralateral counterparts, cardioblasts undergo a cytoskeletal rearrangement and form a lumen. Its simple architecture and cellular composition makes the heart a good system to study mesodermal patterning, intergerm layer signaling, and the function of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) during morphogenesis. In this paper we focus on three adhesion molecules, faint sausage (fas), shotgun/DE-cadherin (shg/DE-Cad), and laminin A (lam A), that are essential for heart development. fas encodes an Ig-like CAM and is required for the correct number of cardioblasts to become specified, as well as proper alignment of cardioblasts. shg/DE-Cad is expressed and required at a later stage than fas; in embryos lacking this gene, cardioblasts are specified normally and become aligned, but do not form a lumen. Additionally, cardioblasts of shg mutant embryos show a redistribution of phosphotyrosine as well as a loss of Armadillo from the membrane, indicating defects in cell polarity. The shg phenotype could be phenocopied by applying EGTA or cytochalasin D, supporting the view that Ca2+-dependent adhesion and the actin cytoskeleton are instrumental for heart lumen formation. As opposed to cell-cell adhesion, cell-substrate adhesion mechanisms are not required for heart morphogenesis, but only for maintenance of the differentiated heart. Embryos lacking the lam A gene initially developed a normal heart, but showed twists and breaks of cardioblasts at late embryonic stages. We discuss our findings in light of recent results that elucidate the function of different adhesion systems in vertebrate heart development. (+info)
Cell adhesion activity for murine carcinoma cells of a wheat germ 55-kDa protein with binding affinity for animal extracellular matrix proteins.
A wheat germ 55-kDa protein was isolated by affinity chromatography with Matrigel immobilized on agarose, followed by preparative gel electrophoresis. This Matrigel-binding protein designated as WG-55 had an amino-terminal amino acid sequence which is identical to that of a putative mature form of wheat storage protein Gbl 1. WG-55 reacted with concanavalin A, indicating its glycoprotein nature as expected from the amino acid sequence of Gbl 1. As expected, similarly, WG-55 exhibited RGD-dependent cell adhesion activity for murine carcinoma cells. These data suggest that WG-55 or mature Gbl 1 protein may play a role in plant cell adhesion. (+info)
Development of cytotrophoblast columns from explanted first-trimester human placental villi: role of fibronectin and integrin alpha5beta1.
Human first-trimester floating mesenchymal villi explanted onto gels of collagen I or Matrigel were observed to undergo de novo development of anchoring sites. These consisted of cytotrophoblast columns that formed by proliferation of stem villous cytotrophoblast cells, as revealed by whole-mount and thin-section microscopy and incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into DNA. Column formation occurred exclusively at the distal tips of the villi. No column formation was observed in tissue explanted onto agarose. On Matrigel, the developing columns penetrated downwards into the matrix, whereas on collagen I, cytotrophoblast sheets spread across the surface of the gel and merged to form a shell. The developing columnar cytotrophoblast up-regulated integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha5beta1 and produced an extracellular matrix containing oncofetal fibronectin, as in vivo. Function-blocking antibodies were used to investigate the role of the integrin-fibronectin interaction in anchoring villus development on collagen I. Antibodies to fibronectin and the integrin subunits alpha5 and beta1, added at 24 h, all changed the pattern of cytotrophoblast outgrowth. Anti-fibronectin caused cell rounding within the cytotrophoblast sheet and increased the population of single cells at its periphery. Anti-integrin alpha5 caused rounding and redistribution of cells within the outgrowth. In the presence of anti-integrin beta1, cell-collagen interactions within the sheet were destabilized, often leading to the appearance of an annulus of aggregated cells at the periphery. These results show that 1) mesenchymal villi retain the potential to form anchoring sites until at least the end of the first trimester, 2) adhesion to a permissive extracellular matrix stimulates cytotrophoblast proliferation and differentiation along the extravillous lineage, 3) integrin alpha5beta1-fibronectin interactions contribute significantly to anchorage of the placenta to uterine extracellular matrix. We suggest that as the developing placenta ramifies, new sites of anchorage form whenever peripheral villi contact decidua. This process is predicted to contribute to the stability of the placental-decidual interface. (+info)
Extracellular matrix regulates apoptosis in mammary epithelium through a control on insulin signaling.
Adherent epithelial cells require interactions with the extracellular matrix for their survival, though the mechanism is ill-defined. In long term cultures of primary mammary epithelial cells, a laminin-rich basement membrane (BM) but not collagen I suppresses apoptosis, indicating that adhesion survival signals are specific in their response (. J. Cell Sci. 109:631-642). We now demonstrate that the signal from BM is mediated by integrins and requires both the alpha6 and beta1 subunits. In addition, a hormonal signal from insulin or insulin-like growth factors, but not hydrocortisone or prolactin, is necessary to suppress mammary cell apoptosis, indicating that BM and soluble factors cooperate in survival signaling. Insulin induced autophosphorylation of its receptor whether mammary cells were cultured on collagen I or BM substrata. However, both the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and its association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase were enhanced in cells cultured on BM, as was the phosphorylation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase effector, protein kinase B. These results suggest a novel extracellular matrix-dependent restriction point in insulin signaling in mammary epithelial cells. The proximal signal transduction event of insulin receptor phosphorylation is not dependent on extracellular matrix, but the activation of downstream effectors requires adhesion to BM. Since phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was required for mammary epithelial cell survival, we propose that a possible mechanism for BM-mediated suppression of apoptosis is through its facilitative effects on insulin signaling. (+info)