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(1/1197) Neutralization of endotoxin in vitro and in vivo by a human lactoferrin-derived peptide.

Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) is the major pathogenic factor of gram-negative septic shock, and endotoxin-induced death is associated with the host overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In the search for new antiendotoxin molecules, we studied the endotoxin-neutralizing capacity of a human lactoferrin-derived 33-mer synthetic peptide (GRRRRSVQWCAVSQPEATKCFQWQRNMRKVRGP; designated LF-33) representing the minimal sequence for lactoferrin binding to glycosaminoglycans. LF-33 inhibited the coagulation of the Limulus amebocyte lysate and the secretion of TNF-alpha by RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipid A and four different endotoxins with a potency comparable to that of polymyxin B. The first six residues at the N terminus of LF-33 were critical for its antiendotoxin activity. The endotoxin-neutralizing capacity of LF-33 and polymyxin B was attenuated by human serum. Coinjection of Escherichia coli LPS (125 ng) with LF-33 (2.5 microg) dramatically reduced the lethality of LPS in the galactosamine-sensitized mouse model. Significant protection of the mice against the lethal LPS challenge was also observed when LF-33 (100 microg) was given intravenously after intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Protection was correlated with a reduction in TNF-alpha levels in the mouse serum. These results demonstrate the endotoxin-neutralizing capability of LF-33 in vitro and in vivo and its potential use for the treatment of endotoxin-induced septic shock.  (+info)

(2/1197) The binding of human lactoferrin to mouse peritoneal cells.

Human iron-saturated Lf (FeLf), which was labeled with 125I or 50Fe, was found to combine with the membrane of mouse peritoneal cells (MPC) which consisted of 70% macrophages. The following experimental data suggested the involvement of a specific receptor. (a) The binding of FeLf to MPC reached a saturation point. (b) The binding of radioactive FeLf was inhibited by preincubating the cells with cold FeLf but not with human Tf, human aggregated and nonaggregated IgG, or beef heart cytochrome c (c) Succinylation and carbamylation of FeLf resulted in a loss of its inhibiting activity on the binding of radioactive FeLf. Removal of neuraminic acid from FeLf increased its inhibitory activity. (d) The ability of apoLf to inhibit the binding of FeLf to MPC was significantly lower than that of FeLf. The existence of a Lf receptor capable of concentrating Lf released from neutrophils on the membrane of macrophages could explain the apparent blockade of the release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system, which accounts for the hyposideremia of inflammation. A receptor for FeLf was also found on mouse peritoneal lymphocytes. The affinity constant of FeLf for both lymphocytes and macrophages was 0.9 X 12(6) liter/mol. Howerver, macrophages bound three times more FeLf molecules (20 X 10(6)) per cell than did lymphocytes (7 X 10(6)).  (+info)

(3/1197) Receptor-mediated transcytosis of lactoferrin through the blood-brain barrier.

Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding protein involved in host defense against infection and severe inflammation; it accumulates in the brain during neurodegenerative disorders. Before determining Lf function in brain tissue, we investigated its origin and demonstrate here that it crosses the blood-brain barrier. An in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier was used to examine the mechanism of Lf transport to the brain. We report that differentiated bovine brain capillary endothelial cells exhibited specific high (Kd = 37.5 nM; n = 90,000/cell) and low (Kd = 2 microM; n = 900,000 sites/cell) affinity binding sites. Only the latter were present on nondifferentiated cells. The surface-bound Lf was internalized only by the differentiated cell population leading to the conclusion that Lf receptors were acquired during cell differentiation. A specific unidirectional transport then occurred via a receptor-mediated process with no apparent intraendothelial degradation. We further report that iron may cross the bovine brain capillary endothelial cells as a complex with Lf. Finally, we show that the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein might be involved in this process because its specific antagonist, the receptor-associated protein, inhibits 70% of Lf transport.  (+info)

(4/1197) Purification of a 76-kDa iron-binding protein from human seminal plasma by affinity chromatography specific for ribonuclease: structural and functional identity with milk lactoferrin.

A pink-colored iron-binding protein has been found in large amount in human seminal plasma and identified as a lactoferrin isoform. Its purification, by a modification of a three-step chromatography procedure developed in an attempt to purify a ribonuclease from the same fluid, provided about 15-18 mg of pure protein from 100 ml of seminal plasma. Despite its ability to bind a ribonuclease ligand during the affinity step, the iron-binding protein did not display any detectable RNase activity in a standard assay with yeast RNA as substrate. It showed an apparent molecular weight of 76 kDa and resulted to be quite similar, if not identical, to human milk lactoferrin in many respects. Its N-terminal sequence (31 amino acid residues) starting with Arg-3 was identical to that of one of the N-terminally truncated lactoferrin variants isolated from human milk. Moreover, the amino acid sequence of a number of peptides, which represented about 23% of the entire sequence, has been also shown to be identical to that of the corresponding peptides of human milk lactoferrin. Double diffusion analysis revealed full recognition by antibodies anti-human milk lactoferrin of the human seminal plasma protein. Using immunoblotting analysis, both human milk lactoferrin and human seminal protein were recognized by antibodies anti-milk lactoferrin. When tested for its iron binding capacity, with Fe-NTA as iron donor, the protein purified was able to bind iron up to 100% saturation, as judged by absorbance at 465 nm.  (+info)

(5/1197) Identification of pneumococcal surface protein A as a lactoferrin-binding protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-sequestering glycoprotein, predominates in mucosal secretions, where the level of free extracellular iron (10(-18) M) is not sufficient for bacterial growth. This represents a mechanism of resistance to bacterial infections by prevention of colonization of the host by pathogens. In this study we were able to show that Streptococcus pneumoniae specifically recognizes and binds the iron carrier protein human Lf (hLf). Pretreatment of pneumococci with proteases reduced hLf binding significantly, indicating that the hLf receptor is proteinaceous. Binding assays performed with 63 clinical isolates belonging to different serotypes showed that 88% of the tested isolates interacted with hLf. Scatchard analysis showed the existence of two hLf-binding proteins with dissociation constants of 5.7 x 10(-8) and 2.74 x 10(-7) M. The receptors were purified by affinity chromatography, and internal sequence analysis revealed that one of the S. pneumoniae proteins was homologous to pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). The function of PspA as an hLf-binding protein was confirmed by the ability of purified PspA to bind hLf and to competitively inhibit hLf binding to pneumococci. S. pneumoniae may use the hLf-PspA interaction to overcome the iron limitation at mucosal surfaces, and this might represent a potential virulence mechanism.  (+info)

(6/1197) The structure of the antimicrobial active center of lactoferricin B bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) is a 25-residue antimicrobial peptide released from bovine lactoferrin upon pepsin digestion. The antimicrobial center of LfcinB consists of six residues (RRWQWR-NH2), and it possesses similar bactericidal activity to LfcinB. The structure of the six-residue peptide bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles has been determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics refinement. The peptide adopts a well defined amphipathic structure when bound to SDS micelles with the Trp sidechains separated from the Arg residues. Additional evidence demonstrates that the peptide is oriented in the micelle such that the Trp residues are more deeply buried in the micelle than the Arg and Gln residues.  (+info)

(7/1197) Endothelial activation response to oral micronised flavonoid therapy in patients with chronic venous disease--a prospective study.

BACKGROUND: Endothelial activation is important in the pathogenesis of skin changes due to chronic venous disease (CVD). Purified micronised flavonoid fraction has been used for symptomatic treatment of CVD for a considerable period of time. The exact mode of action of these compounds remains unknown. AIM: To study the effects of micronised purified flavonoidic fraction (Daflon 500 mg, Servier, France) treatment on plasma markers of endothelial activation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with chronic venous disease were treated for 60 days with DAFLON 500 mg twice daily. Duplex ultrasonography and PPG was used to assess the venous disease. Blood was collected from a foot vein immediately before starting treatment and within 1 week of stopping treatment. Plasma markers of endothelial activation were measured using commercial ELISA kits. RESULTS: Reduction in the level of ICAM-1, 32% (141 ng/ml: 73 ng/ml) and VCAM 29% (1292 ng/ml: 717 ng/ml) was seen. Reduction in plasma lactoferrin (36% decrease, 760 ng/ml: 560 ng/ml) and VW factor occurred in the C4 group only. CONCLUSIONS: Micronised purified flavonoidic fraction treatment for 60 days seems to decrease the levels of some plasma markers of endothelial activation. This could ameliorate the dermatological effects of (CVD). This could also explain some of the pharmacological actions of these compounds. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using soluble endothelial adhesion molecules as markers for treatment.  (+info)

(8/1197) Recovery of 15N-lactoferrin is higher than that of 15N-casein in the small intestine of suckling, but not adult miniature pigs.

Performance of biological functions of lactoferrin in the small intestine requires at least some resistance to degradation. Therefore, we studied prececal digestibility of lactoferrin in comparison to casein both in suckling and adult miniature pigs, applying 15N-labeled proteins. In study 1, 43 piglets (10-d-old), deprived of food for 12 h received 10 mL of sow's milk supplemented with 120 mg of 15N-labeled protein (porcine or bovine lactoferrin or bovine casein). Piglets were anesthetized 150 min later, after which the small intestine was excised, cut into three sections, and chyme was collected. In study 2, nine food-deprived boars fitted with T-canulae at the terminal ileum were given two semisynthetic experimental meals (204 g) in a cross-over design, 2 wk apart. One contained 7.5% (g/100 g) 15N-labeled bovine casein, the other 1.25% 15N-labeled bovine lactoferrin. Both were adjusted to 15% total protein with nonlabeled casein. Ileal chyme was collected from the canula over 33 h postprandially. All diets contained the indigestible marker chromic oxide. 15N-digestibility of lactoferrin, both porcine (84.4 +/- 3.2%) and bovine (82.3 +/- 4.8%), was significantly lower than casein digestibility (97.6 +/- 0.5%) in the distal small intestine of suckling piglets (P < 0.05). Based on immunoblotting after acrylamide electrophoresis, 4.5% of non- and partially digested lactoferrin was found in the last third of the small intestine of piglets. In adult miniature pigs there was no difference in 15N-digestibility of bovine lactoferrin compared to bovine casein (90.7 +/- 1.9% vs. 93.9 +/- 1.0%, P > 0.05). In suckling miniature pigs, the reduced digestibility of lactoferrin may provide the prerequisite for biological actions along the whole intestinal tract. The source of lactoferrin, porcine or bovine, made no difference in this respect.  (+info)