Evaluation of the functional efficacy of an antioxidative probiotic in healthy volunteers.
BACKGROUND: In persons without clinical symptom it is difficult to assess an impact of probiotics regarding its effect on health. We evaluated the functional efficacy of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 in healthy volunteers by measuring the influence of two different formulations on intestinal lactoflora, fecal recovery of the probiotic strain and oxidative stress markers of blood and urine after 3 weeks consumption. METHODS: Two 3-week healthy volunteer trials were performed. Open placebo controlled (OPC) study participants (n = 21) consumed either goat milk or by L. fermentum ME-3 fermented goat milk (daily dose 11.8 log CFU (Colony Forming Units). Double blind randomised placebo controlled (DBRP) study participants (n = 24) received either capsules with L. fermentum ME-3 (daily of dose 9.2 CFU) or placebo capsules. The faecal lactoflora composition, faecal ME-3 recovery, effect of the consumption on intestinal lactoflora, and oxidative stress markers of blood (total antioxidative activity; total antioxidative status and glutathione red-ox ratio) was measured. RESULTS: ME-3 was well tolerated and a significant increase in total faecal lactobacilli yet no predominance of ME-3 was detected in all study groups. Faecal recovery of ME-3 was documented by molecular methods only in fermented milk group, however the significant improvement of blood TAA (Total Antioxidative Activity) and TAS (Total Antioxidative Status) indices was seen both in case of fermented goat milk and capsules", yet glutathione re-ox ratio values decreased only in case of fermented by ME-3 goat milk. CONCLUSION: The functional efficacy of both consumed formulations of an antioxidative probiotic L. fermentum ME-3 is proved by the increase of the intestinal lactobacilli counts providing putative defence against enteric infections and by reduction of the oxidative stress indices of blood and urine of healthy volunteers. In non-diseased host the probiotic health claims can be assessed by improvement of some measurable laboratory indices of well-established physiological functions of host, e.g. markers of antioxidative defence system. (+info)
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of glutamate racemase from Lactobacillus fermenti.
Glutamate racemase catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamic acid to D-glutamic acid and vice versa. Since D-glutamic acid is one of the essential amino acids present in peptidoglycan, glutamate racemase has been considered to be an attractive target for the design of new antibacterial drugs. Glutamate racemase from Lactobacillus fermenti has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 8000 as a precipitant. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 98.32, b = 184.09, c = 45.99 A. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule, corresponding to a VM value of 1.84 A3 Da(-1). A complete data set has been collected from the native enzyme at 2.28 A resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. (+info)
Alteration of the canine small-intestinal lactic acid bacterium microbiota by feeding of potential probiotics.
Five potentially probiotic canine fecal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus fermentum LAB8, Lactobacillus salivarius LAB9, Weissella confusa LAB10, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LAB11, and Lactobacillus mucosae LAB12, were fed to five permanently fistulated beagles for 7 days. The survival of the strains and their potential effects on the indigenous intestinal LAB microbiota were monitored for 17 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated that the five fed LAB strains survived in the upper gastrointestinal tract and modified the dominant preexisting indigenous jejunal LAB microbiota of the dogs. When the LAB supplementation was ceased, DGGE analysis of jejunal chyme showed that all the fed LAB strains were undetectable after 7 days. However, the diversity of the intestinal indigenous microbiota of the dogs, as characterized from jejunal chyme plated on Lactobacillus selective medium without acetic acid, was reduced and did not return to the original level during the study period. In all but one dog, an indigenous Lactobacillus acidophilus strain emerged as the dominant LAB strain. In conclusion, strains LAB8 to LAB12 have potential as probiotic strains for dogs as they survive in and dominate the jejunal LAB microbiota during feeding and have the ability to modify the intestinal microbiota. (+info)
Enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis in the caudal small intestine is influenced by the composition of colonizing commensal bacteria in the neonatal gnotobiotic pig.
We previously reported marked differences in small intestinal morphology, including changes in crypt depth and villous height, after inoculation of germ-free pigs with different bacterial species. In an attempt to identify the mechanisms governing changes in villous morphology associated with bacterial colonization, 2 gnotobiotic experiments were performed. In each experiment, 16 piglets were allocated to 4 treatment groups including germ-free (GF), monoassociation with Lactobacillus fermentum (LF) or Escherichia coli (EC), or conventionalized with sow feces (SF). Piglets were reared under gnotobiotic conditions until 14 d of age, at which time whole intestinal tissue and enterocytes were collected for histological, gene expression, and protein analysis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), Fas ligand (FasL), CD3epsilon, caspase 3 (casp3), and toll-like receptors (TLR)2, 4, and 9 expression were measured by quantitative PCR. Activated casp3 was measured by Western blot. Increased abundance of activated casp3 and transcripts encoding proliferating cell nuclear antigen, TNFalpha, CD3epsilon, and FasL was observed in SF and EC treatment groups compared with GF and LF. Expression of TLR2 was increased (P < 0.05) in the SF treatment and tended to be greater (P < 0.08) in EC relative to LF and GF. Results indicate that conventional bacteria and E. coli but not L. fermentum increase overall cell turnover by stimulating increased apoptosis through the expression of FasL and TNFalpha and by increasing cell proliferation. The differential regulation of TLR expression indicates that microbially induced changes may be mediated in part by these receptors. Induction of inflammatory responses and activation of apoptosis through death receptors appears to play a significant role in enterocyte turnover mediated by commensal bacteria. (+info)
Lactobacillus fermentum Ess-1 with unique growth inhibition of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis pathogens.
The aim of this study was to characterize human isolates of Lactobacillus species for their capacity to interfere with the growth of different strains of Candida species in vitro in the search for a potential probiotic. Growth inhibition of Candida species was screened using an agar-overlay method. Inhibiting strains were selected to assay the effect of a cell-free Lactobacillus culture filtrate (LCF) on the growth of isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. A total of 126 human Lactobacillus isolates was investigated. Eighteen isolates significantly inhibited the growth of C. albicans on agar. The LCF of one of these strains showed strong inhibition of both C. albicans and C. glabrata. This strain was genetically identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and designated L. fermentum Ess-1. Further tests to evaluate the probiotic potential of this strain indicated that L. fermentum Ess-1 strain is a promising probiotic for use in clinical trials to treat and prevent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis. (+info)
Influence of turning and environmental contamination on the dynamics of populations of lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation in Ghana.
The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing. (+info)
Ability of Lactobacillus fermentum to overcome host alpha-galactosidase deficiency, as evidenced by reduction of hydrogen excretion in rats consuming soya alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides.