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(1/165) Pterygium and its relationship to the dry eye in the Bantu.

A comparative study was performed on two groups of Bantus in Johannesburg to see if there was any relationship between the "dry eye" and pterygia, but no correlation was found.  (+info)

(2/165) Dacryolith formation around an eyelash retained in the lacrimal sac.

A dacryolith was discovered in the lacrimal sac during a dacryocystorhinostomy for chronic dacryocystitis in which there was mucocele formation. Morphological examination confirmed the presence of an eyelash at the centre of the stone and electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of fungi (Candida sp.) in a matrix which was of markedly vairable morphology. The mechanism by which a hair enters the punctum and passes along the canaliculus may be attributed to the step-like pattern of ridges on the surface of a hair. The directional nature of these ridges dictates preferential movement towards the root end of the hair and prevents movements in the opposite direction.  (+info)

(3/165) Does androgen insufficiency cause lacrimal gland inflammation and aqueous tear deficiency?

PURPOSE: The current investigators have shown that androgen treatment suppresses inflammation and stimulates the function of lacrimal glands in mouse models of Sjogren's syndrome. Recently, others have hypothesized that androgen insufficiency induces an autoimmune process in lacrimal tissue, leading to inflammation, a Sjogren's syndrome-like pathology, and aqueous tear deficiency. The purpose of the present study was to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Lacrimal glands were obtained from adult testicular feminized (Tfm) and control mice; castrated rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits; and castrated rats without anterior or whole pituitary glands and were processed for histology and image analysis. Tear volumes were measured in mice, in patients taking antiandrogen medications, and in age-matched human control subjects. RESULTS: Tfm mice, which are completely resistant to classical androgen action, did not have increased lymphocyte infiltration in their lacrimal glands or decreased tear volumes. No inflammation was evident in lacrimal tissues of male or female rats, guinea pigs, or rabbits 12 to 31 days after castration, no inflammation existed in rat lacrimal glands 15 to 31 days after orchiectomy and pituitary removal, and no aqueous tear deficiency was apparent in patients receiving antiandrogen therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Androgen deficiency may promote the progression of Sjogren's syndrome and its associated lacrimal gland inflammation, meibomian gland dysfunction, and severe dry eye. However, androgen insufficiency alone does not cause lacrimal gland inflammation, a Sjogren's syndrome-like pathology in lacrimal tissue, or aqueous tear deficiency in nonautoimmune animals and humans.  (+info)

(4/165) The puzzle of autism: an ophthalmologic contribution.

PURPOSE: A previous study of 86 thalidomide-affected subjects with ophthalmic manifestations revealed the unexpected finding of autism in 4 of the 5 severely retarded individuals. The subjects had anomalies associated with an early gestational effect of thalidomide, including facial nerve palsy and incomitant strabismus. Because autism has been observed in a few cases of Mobius sequence (Mobius syndrome), a condition characterized by involvement of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves, the similarity to early thalidomide embryopathy suggested a relation between cranial nerve involvement and autism. The present study was undertaken to further evaluate the association of autism with patients manifesting findings of Mobius syndrome. METHODS: A prospective study of 25 Swedish patients with Mobius sequence was conducted. The patients had a complete multidisciplinary evaluation, including ophthalmologic and psychiatric examinations and standard testing for autism. Findings associated with autism were compared with the ocular and systemic anomalies of the 4 thalidomide-affected subjects. RESULTS: In the Mobius group 6 patients had autism, achieving the criteria for autism according to all the diagnostic manuals that were used. One patient showed autistic-like conditions meeting fewer numbers of the criteria. A few were too young to be meeting evaluated. Incomitant strabismus ranging from primary abduction defects alone to a horizontal gaze paresis pattern was noted in these patients, in addition to characteristic findings of seventh nerve paresis. Aberrant lacrimation was observed in many cases, especially often associated with autism. CONCLUSION: The common group of anomalies noted in both cases of thalidomide embryopathy and Mobius sequence suggests that brain-stem damage probably early in embryogenesis can sometimes be associated with autism.  (+info)

(5/165) The 4A syndrome association with osteoporosis.

4A syndrome is characterised by adrenocortical insufficiency, achalasia, alacrima, autonomic and other neurological abnormalities. We report an 18-year-old boy with 4 A syndrome and having all classical features of the disease including sensorimotor neuropathy. In addition, the patient had low aldosterone levels and signs of osteoporosis, which apparently developed without glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Although it is speculated that the lack of local growth factors, nutritional deficiency secondary to achalasia or receptor abnormalities regarding bone metabolism contribute to osteoporosis, its etiopathogenesis still needs to be clarified.  (+info)

(6/165) Ductal cysts of the accessory lacrimal glands: CT findings.

Benign ductal cysts of the accessory lacrimal glands are uncommon lesions of the orbit, arising from the glands of Wolfring and Krause. We report two patients with histopathologically proved cysts in whom CT scans revealed well-circumscribed extraconal cystic lesions adjacent to the globe, involving both eyelids. Radiologists should be aware of these rare lesions so as to include them in the differential diagnosis of orbital cysts.  (+info)

(7/165) Prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele: a possible marker for syndromes.

We present our experience of the sonographic prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele and review the literature. This lesion can be distinguished from a facial hemangioma, dermoid or anterior encephalocele by the ultrasound findings and Doppler flow studies. These conditions are separate entities and their associated diagnosis and prognosis are very different in each case. As dacryocystocele may be part of numerous syndromes, its prenatal visualization raises the rare possibility of associated anomalies.  (+info)

(8/165) MR dacryocystography: comparison with dacryocystography and CT dacryocystography.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several techniques have been used to image the nasolacrimal system, providing functional (dacryoscintigraphy) or morphologic (dacryocystography, CT dacryocystography [CTD]) information. Using gadopentetate dimeglumine-diluted solution injected into the lacrimal canaliculus or instilled into the conjunctival sac, we compared the sensitivity of MR dacryocystography (MRD) with that of CTD. METHODS: Eleven healthy volunteers and 25 patients affected by primary epiphora (21 patients) or postsurgical recurrent epiphora (four patients) underwent MRD after the topical administration of contrast media or cannulation of the lacrimal canaliculus. The MR imaging findings were compared with irrigation and CTD data. All patients underwent surgical treatment (dacryocystorhinostomy), which served as a standard of reference for confirming the MRD findings. RESULTS: The topical administration of contrast-enhanced saline solution and the injection of contrast-enhanced saline solution after cannulation were always well tolerated. In healthy volunteers, outflow of contrast media was always revealed by MRD. Eight (32%) of 25 patients with epiphora had stenosis proximal to the lacrimal sac revealed by MRD, whereas 17 (68%) of 25 showed a dilated lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct stenosis, as confirmed by surgical findings. The findings of MRD after the topical administration of contrast medium and MRD after cannulation of the lacrimal canaliculus were comparable with irrigation or CTD data for all patients except one. CONCLUSION: In patients with epiphora, MR imaging performed after the topical administration of diluted contrast material can reveal stenosis of the lacrimal apparatus and can be added to the standard orbital imaging protocol when lacrimal system involvement is suspected.  (+info)