(1/19) Antagonism of 5-hydroxykynurenamine against serotonin action on platelet aggregation.

Serotonin induced an aggregation of human platelets, whereas 5-hydroxykynurenamine, produced from serotonin by the action of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, did not cause any significant degree of platelet aggregation. 5-Hydroxykynurenamine specifically inhibited both a serotonin-induced aggregation of platelets and the potentiation of the ADP-induced platelet aggregation by serotonin. It did not, however, alter the profiles of the platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, or adrenaline. The degree of inhibition was proportional to the time of preincubation of platelets with 5-hydroxykynurenamine, and to the concentration of 5-hydroxykynurenamine used. Available evidence indicated that 5-hydroxykynurenamine completed with serotonin for the same receptor sites. Studies with analogues of 5-hydroxykynurenamine indicated that the substitutions of 0-amino-benzyl moiety with hydroxy or methoxy groups were somewhat tolerated, whereas the masking of alkylamine moiety with N-acetylation completely lost the inhibitory activity.  (+info)

(2/19) Inhibitory effects of ethaverine, a homologue of papaverine, on monoamine oxidase activity in mouse brain.

The effects of benzylisoquinoline compounds such as ethaverine, laudanosine, and tetrahydropapaverine on monoamine oxidase (MAO, EC activity in mouse brain were investigated. Ethaverine showed an inhibition of MAO activity in a concentration-dependent manner (57.6% inhibition at 40 microm). Papaverine also inhibited MAO activity (38.1% inhibition at 40 microM). However, laudanosine and tetrahydropapaverine did not inhibit MAO activity. The IC50 value of ethaverine for MAO was 25.5 microm. Ethaverine non-competitively inhibited MAO activity with a substrate kynuramine. The Ki value for ethaverine was 11.9 microM. In addition, ethaverine proved to preferentially inhibit type B MAO activity in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 32.8 microm. These results suggest that ethaverine partially contributes to the regulation of catecholamine content.  (+info)

(3/19) N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, a biogenic amine and melatonin metabolite, functions as a potent antioxidant.

The biogenic amine The biogenic amine N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) was investigated for its potential antioxidative capacity. AFMK is a metabolite generated through either an enzymatic or a chemical reaction pathway from melatonin. The physiological function of AFMK remains unknown. To our knowledge, this report is the first to document the potent antioxidant action of this biogenic amine. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) shows that AFMK donates two electrons at potentials of 456 mV and 668 mV, and therefore it functions as a reductive force. This function contrasts with all other physiological antioxidants that donate a single electron only when they neutralize free radicals. AFMK reduced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation induced by the incubation of DNA with oxidants significantly. Lipid peroxidation resulting from free radical damage to rat liver homogenates was also prevented by the addition of AFMK. The inhibitory effects of AFMK on both DNA and lipid damage appear to be dose-response related. In cell culture, AFMK efficiently reduced hippocampal neuronal death induced by either hydrogen peroxide, glutamate, or amyloid b25-35 peptide. AFMK is a naturally occurring molecule with potent free radical scavenging capacity (donating two electrons/molecule) and thus may be a valuable new antioxidant for preventing and treating free radical-related disorders.  (+info)

(4/19) In vitro inhibition of brain mitochondrial monoamine oxidase by 6-hydroxydopamine.

6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) inhibits rat brain mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) when kynuramine or dopamine are used as substrates. The effect is competitive and reversible giving Ki values of 74 and 176 muM with the respective substrates. At high concentrations (5 mM) of each substrate, inhibition of MAO was not observed.  (+info)

(5/19) Helquinoline, a new tetrahydroquinoline antibiotic from Janibacter limosus Hel 1+.

The ethyl acetate extract of cultures of Janibacter limosus showed a high biological activity against bacteria, and fungi and delivered two new natural products, a tetrahydroquinoline derivative designated as helquinoline (1), and the N-acetylkynuramine (3a), along with other known secondary metabolites. The structure of 1 has been elucidated as 4-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-8-carboxylic acid on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectra. The relative stereochemistry of the compound 1 was assigned as 2R*,4R* with the aid of coupling constants, NOESY correlation and by comparison with a related compound.  (+info)

(6/19) Superoxide-dependent oxidation of melatonin by myeloperoxidase.

Myeloperoxidase uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize numerous substrates to hypohalous acids or reactive free radicals. Here we show that neutrophils oxidize melatonin to N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) in a reaction that is catalyzed by myeloperoxidase. Production of AFMK was highly dependent on superoxide but not hydrogen peroxide. It did not require hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, or hydroxyl radical. Purified myeloperoxidase and a superoxide-generating system oxidized melatonin to AFMK and a dimer. The dimer would result from coupling of melatonin radicals. Oxidation of melatonin was partially inhibited by catalase or superoxide dismutase. Formation of AFMK was almost completely eliminated by superoxide dismutase but weakly inhibited by catalase. In contrast, production of melatonin dimer was enhanced by superoxide dismutase and blocked by catalase. We propose that myeloperoxidase uses superoxide to oxidize melatonin by two distinct pathways. One pathway involves the classical peroxidation mechanism in which hydrogen peroxide is used to oxidize melatonin to radicals. Superoxide adds to these radicals to form an unstable peroxide that decays to AFMK. In the other pathway, myeloperoxidase uses superoxide to insert dioxygen into melatonin to form AFMK. This novel activity expands the types of oxidative reactions myeloperoxidase can catalyze. It should be relevant to the way neutrophils use superoxide to kill bacteria and how they metabolize xenobiotics.  (+info)

(7/19) Novel rhythms of N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and its precursor melatonin in water hyacinth: importance for phytoremediation.

N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMFK) is a major metabolite of melatonin in mammals. To investigate whether AFMK exists in plants, an aquatic plant, water hyacinth, was used. To achieve this, LC/MS/MS with a deuterated standard was employed. AFMK was identified in any plant for the first time. Both it and its precursor, melatonin, were rhythmic with peaks during the late light phase. These novel rhythms indicate that these molecules do not serve as the chemical signal of darkness as in animals but may relate to processes of photosynthesis or photoprotection. These possibilities are supported by higher production of melatonin and AFMK in plants grown in sunlight (10,000-15,000 microW/cm2) compared to those grown under artificial light (400-450 microW/cm2). Melatonin and AFMK, as potent free radical scavengers, may assist plants in coping with harsh environmental insults, including soil and water pollutants. High levels of melatonin and AFMK in water hyacinth may explain why this plant more easily tolerates environmental pollutants, including toxic chemicals and heavy metals and is successfully used in phytoremediation. These novel findings could lead to improvements in the phytoremediative capacity of plants by either stimulating endogenous melatonin synthesis or by adding melatonin to water/soil in which they are grown.  (+info)

(8/19) Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-mediated tryptophan catabolism accelerates collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is one of the initial and rate-limiting enzymes involved in the catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan. In cultured cells, the induction of IDO leads to depletion of tryptophan and tryptophan starvation. Recent studies suggest that modulation of tryptophan concentration via IDO plays a fundamental role in innate immune responses. Induction of IDO by interferon-gamma in macrophages and dendritic cells results in tryptophan depletion and suppresses the immune-mediated activation of fibroblasts and T, B, and natural killer cells. To assess the role of IDO in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a model of rheumatoid arthritis characterized by a primarily Th1-like immune response, activity of IDO was inhibited by 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT) in vivo. The results showed significantly increased incidence and severity of CIA in mice treated with 1-MT. Activity of IDO, as determined by measuring the levels of kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in the sera, was increased in the acute phase of arthritis and was higher in collagen-immunized mice that did not develop arthritis. Treatment with 1-MT resulted in an enhanced cellular and humoral immune response and a more dominant polarization to Th1 in mice with arthritis compared with vehicle-treated arthritic mice. The results demonstrated that development of CIA was associated with increased IDO activity and enhanced tryptophan catabolism in mice. Blocking IDO with 1-MT aggravated the severity of arthritis and enhanced the immune responses. These findings suggest that IDO may play an important and novel role in the negative feedback of CIA and possibly in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)