Evidence of O2 supply-dependent VO2 max in the exercise-trained human quadriceps.
Maximal O2 delivery and O2 uptake (VO2) per 100 g of active muscle mass are far greater during knee extensor (KE) than during cycle exercise: 73 and 60 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (2.4 kg of muscle) (R. S. Richardson, D. R. Knight, D. C. Poole, S. S. Kurdak, M. C. Hogan, B. Grassi, and P. D. Wagner. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 37): H1453-H1461, 1995) and 28 and 25 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (7.5 kg of muscle) (D. R. Knight, W. Schaffartzik, H. J. Guy, R. Predilleto, M. C. Hogan, and P. D. Wagner. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2586-2593, 1993), respectively. Although this is evidence of muscle O2 supply dependence in itself, it raises the following question: With such high O2 delivery in KE, are the quadriceps still O2 supply dependent at maximal exercise? To answer this question, seven trained subjects performed maximum KE exercise in hypoxia [0.12 inspired O2 fraction (FIO2)], normoxia (0.21 FIO2), and hyperoxia (1.0 FIO2) in a balanced order. The protocol (after warm-up) was a square wave to a previously determined maximum work rate followed by incremental stages to ensure that a true maximum was achieved under each condition. Direct measures of arterial and venous blood O2 concentration in combination with a thermodilution blood flow technique allowed the determination of O2 delivery and muscle VO2. Maximal O2 delivery increased with inspired O2: 1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.2, and 1.9 +/- 0.2 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Maximal work rate was affected by variations in inspired O2 (-25 and +14% at 0.12 and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, compared with normoxia, P < 0.05) as was maximal VO2 (VO2 max): 1.04 +/- 0.13, 1. 24 +/- 0.16, and 1.45 +/- 0.19 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Calculated mean capillary PO2 also varied with FIO2 (28.3 +/- 1.0, 34.8 +/- 2.0, and 40.7 +/- 1.9 Torr at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, P < 0.05) and was proportionally related to changes in VO2 max, supporting our previous finding that a decrease in O2 supply will proportionately decrease muscle VO2 max. As even in the isolated quadriceps (where normoxic O2 delivery is the highest recorded in humans) an increase in O2 supply by hyperoxia allows the achievement of a greater VO2 max, we conclude that, in normoxic conditions of isolated KE exercise, KE VO2 max in trained subjects is not limited by mitochondrial metabolic rate but, rather, by O2 supply. (+info)
Meniscal movement. An in-vivo study using dynamic MRI.
We present the first study in vivo of meniscal movement in normal knees under load. Using an open MR scanner, allowing imaging in physiological positions in near to real-time, 16 young footballers were scanned moving from full extension to 90 degrees flexion in the sagittal and coronal planes. Excursion of the meniscal horns, radial displacement and meniscal height were measured. On weight-bearing, the anterior horn of the medial meniscus moves through a mean of 7.1 mm and the posterior horn through 3.9 mm, with 3.6 mm of mediolateral radial displacement. The height of the anterior horn increases by 2.6 mm and that of the posterior horn by 2.0 mm. The anterior horn of the lateral meniscus moves 9.5 mm and the posterior horn 5.6 mm, with 3.7 mm of radial displacement. The height of the anterior horn increases by 4.0 mm, and that of the posterior horn by 2.4 mm. In non-weight-bearing, the anterior horn of the medial meniscus moves 5.4 mm and the posterior horn 3.8 mm, with 3.3 mm of radial displacement. The anterior horn of the lateral meniscus moves 6.3 mm, and the posterior horn 4.0 mm, with 3.4 mm of radial displacement. The most significant differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing were the movement and vertical height of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus. (+info)
Knee pain and the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve.
Pain over the front of the knee is common after surgery or trauma but often a definite diagnosis is difficult to make. Over the past year we have seen five cases in which the pain could be ascribed to damage to a branch of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve. Two were subsequent to trauma and three to surgical procedures. In all five cases surgical exploration gave symptomatic relief. Eight cadaveric knees were prosected to explore further the anatomy of this nerve in relation to the injuries. Injury to one of these branches should be considered in cases of persistent anterior, anteromedial or anterolateral knee pain or neurological symptoms following surgery or trauma. (+info)
Gender differences in knee cartilage volume as measured by magnetic resonance imaging.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze sex differences in knee cartilage volume. METHODS: Articulate cartilage volumes were determined by processing images acquired in the sagittal plane using T1-weighted fat saturation magnetic resonance on an independent work station. The knees of 28 subjects (17 male, 11 female) who underwent MRI for clinical indications (pain <3 months) but who had a normal X-ray and structurally normal MRI were examined. RESULTS: Males had significantly larger cartilage volumes than females, with difference in cartilage volume remaining statistically significant after adjusting for age, height, weight and bone volume. The differences for males relative to females were: femoral cartilage volume [4.1 ml 95% CI (2.0, 6.1)]; and patella cartilage volume [1.4 ml (0.2, 2.7)]. Although not statistically significant, the tibial cartilage volume also showed these sex differences. Exploratory analysis indicated an increasing gender difference with increasing age for patellar cartilage volume. CONCLUSION: Men have significantly larger knee cartilage volume than women, independent of body and bone size. The mechanisms for this will need to be determined. (+info)
Changes in articular synovial lining volume measured by magnetic resonance in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of intra-articular samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite for chronic knee synovitis.
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance techniques have recently been investigated as tools with which to monitor inflammatory joint disease. Our aim was to use a contrast-enhanced T1-weighted protocol to monitor the short-term changes in knee synovial lining volume in a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of intra-articular samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite (Sm-153 PHYP). METHODS: Twenty-four out-patients with chronic knee synovitis, from a cohort who had been recruited to a long-term clinical efficacy trial, were recruited for this study. Patients received either intra-articular Sm-153 PHYP combined with 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide or 40 mg intra-articular triamcinolone hexacetonide alone. Synovial lining volumes were calculated from three-dimensional T1-weighted contrast-enhanced images made before and after contrast enhancement with thresholding and pixel counting, immediately before and 3 months after treatment. RESULTS: Paired pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance data were obtained for 18/24 (75%) patients. There was no significant difference in mean pre-treatment synovial volume between the two treatment groups (139 vs 127 ml). A mean reduction in synovial lining volume was detected in the Sm-153 PHYP/steroid-treated group (139 to 110 ml, P = 0.07) and in the steroid-treated group (127 to 58 ml, P < 0.001). The reduction was significantly greater in the steroid-treated group (-61% vs -23%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term changes in articular synovial lining in response to intra-articular treatment for chronic synovitis may be monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. After 3 months, a greater mean reduction in synovial lining volume had occurred in response to intra-articular steroid alone compared to combined Sm-153 PHYP/steroid injection. (+info)
Study of three different doses of epidural neostigmine coadministered with lidocaine for postoperative analgesia.
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal neostigmine produces analgesia in volunteers and patients. However, the use of epidural neostigmine has not been investigated. The purpose of the current study was to define the analgesic effectiveness of epidural neostigmine coadministered with lidocaine and side effects in patients after minor orthopedic procedures. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, 48 patients (n = 12) undergoing knee surgery were randomly allocated to one of four groups and studied in a prospective way. After 0.05-0.1 mg/kg intravenous midazolam premedication, patients were randomized to receive 20 mg intrathecal bupivacaine plus epidural lidocaine (85 mg) with saline (control group); 1 microg/kg epidural neostigmine (1 microg group); 2 microg/kg epidural neostigmine (2 microg group); or 4 microg/kg epidural neostigmine (4 microg group). The concept of the visual analog scale, which consisted of a 10-cm line with 0 equaling "no pain at all" and 10 equaling "the worst possible pain" was introduced. Postoperatively, pain was assessed using the visual analog scale, and intramuscular 75 mg diclofenac was available at patient request. RESULTS: Groups were demographically the same and did not differ in intraoperative characteristics (blood pressure, heart rate, ephedrine consumption, oxyhemoglobin saturation, sensory loss before start of surgery, or duration of sensory motor block). The visual analog scale score at first rescue analgesic and the incidence of adverse effects were similar among groups (P > 0.05). The time (min +/- SD) to first rescue analgesic was as follows: control group: 205+/-48; 1-microg group: 529+/-314; 2-microg group: 504+/-284; 4-microg group: 547+/-263 (P < 0.05). The analgesic consumption (number of intramuscular diclofenac injections [mean, 25th-75th percentile]) in 24 h was as follows: control group: 3 [3 or 4]; 1-microg group: 1 [1 or 2]; 2-microg group: 2 [1 or 2]; 4-microg group: 2 [1-3] (P < 0.05). The 24-h-pain visual analog scale score (cm +/- SD) that represents the overall impression for the last 24 h was as follows: control group: 5+/-1.6; 1-microg group: 1.6+/-1.8; 2-microg group: 1.4+/-1.6; 4-microg group: 2.2+/-1.9 (P < 0.005). The incidence of adverse effects was similar among groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Epidural neostigmine (1, 2, or 4 microg/kg) in lidocaine produced a dose-independent analgesic effect (approximately 8 h) compared to the control group (approximately 3.5 h), and a reduction in postoperative rescue analgesic consumption without increasing the incidence of adverse effects. (+info)
Knee-heel length measurement in healthy preterm infants.
AIM: To examine the reproducibility of crown-heel length measurement; the precision and reproducibility of knee-heel length measurement; and the association between the two in healthy preterm infants. METHODS: Paired crown-heel and knee-heel lengths were measured on 172 occasions by three observers in 43 preterm infants between 205 and 458 days of postconceptional age. RESULTS: Crown-heel length (CHL) measurement was highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.41%. Knee-heel length (KHL) measurement was relatively precise (CV 0.78%), but less reproducible (intra-observer CV 1.77%, intra-observer CV 2.11%), especially in larger infants. The association between KHL and CHL was not consistent and varied with age. KHL was a poor predictor of CHL, with a 95% predictive interval of +/- 27.5 mm. CONCLUSIONS: KHL was less reproducible than CHL, especially in larger infants, and a poor predictor of CHL. (+info)
Erdheim-Chester disease: a case report.
A 42-year-old man with Erdheim-Chester disease (EC) is presented. This is the first case of this disease reported in Korea. The patient complained of knee pain and plain roentgenogram of the bilateral legs revealed diffusely increased density, coarsened trabecular pattern, and cortical thickening in the diaphysis, and metaphysis as well as epiphysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the lesions showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and heterogeneously low and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen showed a xanthogranulomatous lesion consisting aggregations of foamy histiocytes and Touton-type giant cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed positive reaction to anti-S-100 and lysozyme in the cytoplasm of the giant cells. (+info)