The genes for the Golgi apparatus N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter are contiguous in Kluyveromyces lactis.
The mannan chains of Kluyveromyces lactis mannoproteins are similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae except that they lack mannose phosphate and have terminal alpha(1-->2)-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Previously, Smith et al. (Smith, W. L. Nakajima, T., and Ballou, C. E. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 3426-3435) characterized two mutants, mnn2-1 and mnn2-2, which lacked terminal N-acetylglucosamine in their mannoproteins. The former mutant lacks the Golgi N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity, whereas the latter one was recently found to be deficient in the Golgi UDP-GlcNAc transporter activity. Analysis of extensive crossings between the two mutants led Ballou and co-workers (reference cited above) to conclude that these genes were allelic or tightly linked. We have now cloned the gene encoding the K. lactis Golgi membrane N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase by complementation of the mnn2-1 mutation and named it GNT1. The mnn2-1 mutant was transformed with a 9.5-kilobase (kb) genomic fragment previously shown to contain the gene encoding the UDP-GlcNAc transporter; transformants were isolated, and phenotypic correction was monitored after cell surface labeling with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Griffonia simplicifolia II lectin, which binds terminal N-acetylglucosamine, and a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The above 9.5-kb DNA fragment restored the wild-type lectin binding phenotype of the transferase mutant; further subcloning of this fragment yielded a smaller one containing an opening reading frame of 1,383 bases encoding a protein of 460 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 53 kDa, which also restored the wild-type phenotype. Transformants had also regained the ability to transfer N-acetylglucosamine to 3-0-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-D-mannopyranoside. The gene encoding the above transferase was found to be approximately 1 kb upstream from the previously characterized MNN2 gene encoding the UDP-GlcNAc Golgi transporter. Each gene can be transcribed independently by their own promoter. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of two Golgi apparatus functionally related genes being contiguous in a genome. (+info)
Purification and characterization of phospholipase B from Kluyveromyces lactis, and cloning of phospholipase B gene.
Phospholipase B (PLB) from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis was purified to homogeneity from culture medium. The enzyme was highly glycosylated with apparent molecular mass of 160-250 kDa, and had two pH optima, at pH 2.0 and pH 7.5. At acidic pH the enzyme hydrolyzed all phospholipid substrates tested here without metal ion. On the other hand, at alkaline pH the enzyme showed substrate specificity for phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine and required Ca2+, Fe3+, or Al3+ for the activity. The alkaline activity was increased more than 20-fold in the presence of Al3+ compared to that in the presence of Ca2+. cDNA sequence of PLB (KlPLB) was analyzed by a combination of several PCR procedures. KlPLB encoded a protein consist of 640 amino acids and the deduced amino acid sequence showed 66.7% similarity with the T. delbrueckii PLB. The amino acid sequence contained the lipase consensus sequence (G-X-S-X-G) and the catalytic aspartic acid motif. Replacement of Arg-112 or Asp-406 with alanine caused loss of the enzymatic activity at both pH. These results suggested that PLB activity are dependent on a catalytic mechanism similar to that of cytosolic phospholipase A2. (+info)
Expression of the ADP/ATP carrier encoding genes in aerobic yeasts; phenotype of an ADP/ATP carrier deletion mutant of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
The expression of a key mitochondrial membrane component, the ADP/ATP carrier, was investigated in two aerobic yeast species, Kluyveromyces lactis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although the two species differ very much in their respiratory capacity, the expression of the carrier in both yeast species was decreased under partially anaerobic conditions and was induced by nonfermentable carbon sources. The single ADP/ATP carrier encoding gene was deleted in S. pombe. The null mutant exhibits impaired growth properties, especially when cultivated at reduced oxygen tension, and is unable to grow on a nonfermentable carbon source. Our results suggest that the inability of K. lactis and S. pombe to grow under anaerobic conditions can be related in part to the absence of a functional ADP/ATP carrier due to repression of the corresponding gene expression. (+info)
Uncapping and deregulation of telomeres lead to detrimental cellular consequences in yeast.
Telomeres are the protein-nucleic acid structures at the ends of eukaryote chromosomes. Tandem repeats of telomeric DNA are templated by the RNA component (TER1) of the ribonucleoprotein telomerase. These repeats are bound by telomere binding proteins, which are thought to interact with other factors to create a higher-order cap complex that stabilizes the chromosome end. In the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, the incorporation of certain mutant DNA sequences into telomeres leads to uncapping of telomeres, manifested by dramatic telomere elongation and increased length heterogeneity (telomere deregulation). Here we show that telomere deregulation leads to enlarged, misshapen "monster" cells with increased DNA content and apparent defects in cell division. However, such deregulated telomeres became stabilized at their elongated lengths upon addition of only a few functionally wild-type telomeric repeats to their ends, after which the frequency of monster cells decreased to wild-type levels. These results provide evidence for the importance of the most terminal repeats at the telomere in maintaining the cap complex essential for normal telomere function. Analysis of uncapped and capped telomeres also show that it is the deregulation resulting from telomere uncapping, rather than excessive telomere length per se, that is associated with DNA aberrations and morphological defects. (+info)
Mgm101p is a novel component of the mitochondrial nucleoid that binds DNA and is required for the repair of oxidatively damaged mitochondrial DNA.
Maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) during cell division is required for progeny to be respiratory competent. Maintenance involves the replication, repair, assembly, segregation, and partitioning of the mitochondrial nucleoid. MGM101 has been identified as a gene essential for mtDNA maintenance in S. cerevisiae, but its role is unknown. Using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, we identified Mgm101p as a component of highly enriched nucleoids, suggesting that it plays a nucleoid-specific role in maintenance. Subcellular fractionation, indirect immunofluorescence and GFP tagging show that Mgm101p is exclusively associated with the mitochondrial nucleoid structure in cells. Furthermore, DNA affinity chromatography of nucleoid extracts indicates that Mgm101p binds to DNA, suggesting that its nucleoid localization is in part due to this activity. Phenotypic analysis of cells containing a temperature sensitive mgm101 allele suggests that Mgm101p is not involved in mtDNA packaging, segregation, partitioning or required for ongoing mtDNA replication. We examined Mgm101p's role in mtDNA repair. As compared with wild-type cells, mgm101 cells were more sensitive to mtDNA damage induced by UV irradiation and were hypersensitive to mtDNA damage induced by gamma rays and H2O2 treatment. Thus, we propose that Mgm101p performs an essential function in the repair of oxidatively damaged mtDNA that is required for the maintenance of the mitochondrial genome. (+info)
A colorimetric technique for detecting trichothecenes and assessing relative potencies.
We tested a novel colorimetric toxicity test, based on inhibition of beta-galactosidase activity in the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, for sensitivity to a range of mycotoxins. A variety of trichothecene mycotoxins could be detected. The order of toxicity established with this bioassay was verrucarin A > roridin A > T-2 toxin > diacetoxyscirpenol > HT-2 toxin > acetyl T-2 toxin > neosolaniol > fusarenon X > T-2 triol > scirpentriol > nivalenol > deoxynivalenol > T-2 tetraol. The sensitivity of detection was high, with the most potent trichothecene tested, verrucarin A, having a 50% effective concentration (concentration of toxin causing 50% inhibition) of 2 ng/ml. Other mycotoxins (cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, tenuazonic acid, and zearalenone) could not be detected at up to 10 micrograms/ml, nor could aflatoxins B1 and M1 be detected at concentrations up to 25 micrograms/ml. This test should be useful for trichothecene detection and for studies of relevant interactions-both between trichothecenes themselves and between trichothecenes and other food constituents. (+info)
Variation in Microbial Identification System accuracy for yeast identification depending on commercial source of Sabouraud dextrose agar.
The accuracy of the Microbial Identification System (MIS; MIDI, Inc. ) for identification of yeasts to the species level was compared by using 438 isolates grown on prepoured BBL Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and prepoured Remel SDA. Correct identification was observed for 326 (74%) of the yeasts cultured on BBL SDA versus only 214 (49%) of yeasts grown on Remel SDA (P < 0.001). The commercial source of the SDA used in the MIS procedure significantly influences the system's accuracy. (+info)
High-level production of heterologous protein by engineered yeasts grown in cottage cheese whey.
Cottage cheese whey is a cheese industry by-product still rich in proteins and lactose. Its recycling is seldom cost-effective. In this work we show that the lactose-utilizing yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, engineered for production of recombinant human lysozyme, can be grown in cottage cheese whey, resulting in high-level production of the heterologous protein (125 microg/ml). (+info)