Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development.
The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants. (+info)
Effect of acidification on the location of H+-ATPase in cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells.
In previous studies, our laboratory has utilized a cell line derived from the rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) as a model system for mammalian renal epithelial cell acid secretion. We have provided evidence, from a physiological perspective, that acute cellular acidification stimulates apical exocytosis and elicits a rapid increase in proton secretion that is mediated by an H+-ATPase. The purpose of these experiments was to examine the effect of acute cellular acidification on the distribution of the vacuolar H+-ATPase in IMCD cells in vitro. We utilized the 31-kDa subunit of the H+-ATPase as a marker of the complete enzyme. The distribution of this subunit of the H+-ATPase was evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques (confocal and electron microscopy), and we found that there is a redistribution of these pumps from vesicles to the apical membrane. Immunoblot evaluation of isolated apical membrane revealed a 237 +/- 34% (P < 0.05, n = 9) increase in the 31-kDa subunit present in the membrane fraction 20 min after the induction of cellular acidification. Thus our results demonstrate the presence of this pump subunit in the IMCD cell line in vitro and that cell acidification regulates the shuttling of cytosolic vesicles containing the 31-kDa subunit into the apical membrane. (+info)
Second messenger production in avian medullary nephron segments in response to peptide hormones.
We examined the sites of peptide hormone activation within medullary nephron segments of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) kidney by measuring rates of hormone-induced generation of cyclic nucleotide second messenger. Thin descending limbs, thick ascending limbs, and collecting ducts had baseline activity of adenylyl cyclase that resulted in cAMP accumulation of 207 +/- 56, 147 +/- 31, and 151 +/- 41 fmol. mm-1. 30 min-1, respectively. In all segments, this activity increased 10- to 20-fold in response to forskolin. Activity of adenylyl cyclase in the thin descending limb was stimulated approximately twofold by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by any of the other hormones tested [arginine vasotocin (AVT), glucagon, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or isoproterenol, each at 10(-6) M]. Thick ascending limb was stimulated two- to threefold by both AVT and PTH; however, glucagon and isoproterenol had no effect, and ANP stimulated neither cAMP nor cGMP accumulation. Adenylyl cyclase activity in the collecting duct was stimulated fourfold by AVT but not by the other hormones; likewise, ANP did not stimulate cGMP accumulation in this segment. These data support a tubular action of AVT and PTH in the avian renal medulla. (+info)
Ganglioside GM2-activator protein and vesicular transport in collecting duct intercalated cells.
This study describes the molecular characterization of an antigen defined by an autoantibody from a woman with habitual abortion as GM2-activator protein. The patient showed no disorder of renal function. Accidentally with routine serum screening for autoantibodies, an immunoreactivity was found in kidney collecting duct intercalated cells. Three distinct patterns of immunostaining of intercalated cells were observed: staining of the apical pole, basolateral pole, and diffuse cytoplasmic labeling. Ultrastructurally, the immunoreactivity was associated with "studs," which represent the cytoplasmic domain of the vacuolar proton pump in intercalated cells. This pump is subjected to a shuttling mechanism from cytoplasmic stores to the cell membrane, which exclusively occurs in intercalated cells. Peptide sequences of a 23-kD protein purified from rat kidney cortex showed complete identity with corresponding sequences of GM2-activator protein. In the brain, GM2-activator protein is required for hexosaminidase A to split a sugar from ganglioside GM2. Because neither ganglioside GM2 nor GM1 (its precursor) is present in significant amounts in the kidney, the previous finding that this tissue contains the highest level of activator protein in the body was confusing. In this study, a novel role for GM2-activator protein in intercalated cells is proposed, and possible roles in the shuttling mechanism are discussed. (+info)
Regulation of renal urea transporters.
Urea is important for the conservation of body water due to its role in the production of concentrated urine in the renal inner medulla. Physiologic data demonstrate that urea is transported by facilitated and by active urea transporter proteins. The facilitated urea transporter (UT-A) in the terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) permits very high rates of transepithelial urea transport and results in the delivery of large amounts of urea into the deepest portions of the inner medulla where it is needed to maintain a high interstitial osmolality for concentrating the urine maximally. Four isoforms of the UT-A urea transporter family have been cloned to date. The facilitated urea transporter (UT-B) in erythrocytes permits these cells to lose urea rapidly as they traverse the ascending vasa recta, thereby preventing loss of urea from the medulla and decreasing urine-concentrating ability by decreasing the efficiency of countercurrent exchange, as occurs in Jk null individuals (who lack Kidd antigen). In addition to these facilitated urea transporters, three sodium-dependent, secondary active urea transport mechanisms have been characterized functionally in IMCD subsegments: (1) active urea reabsorption in the apical membrane of initial IMCD from low-protein fed or hypercalcemic rats; (2) active urea reabsorption in the basolateral membrane of initial IMCD from furosemide-treated rats; and (3) active urea secretion in the apical membrane of terminal IMCD from untreated rats. This review focuses on the physiologic, biophysical, and molecular evidence for facilitated and active urea transporters, and integrative studies of their acute and long-term regulation in rats with reduced urine-concentrating ability. (+info)
Immunohistochemical detection of JC virus in nontumorous renal tissue of a patient with renal cancer but without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
We performed immunohistochemical staining on the nontumorous renal tissue of 45 patients with renal cancer but without progressive multifocal encephalopathy using JCV-specific antibody. For one patient we found positive staining of the nuclei of the renal collecting ducts. Immunoelectron microscopic examination of the positive cell nuclei revealed electron-dense polyomavirus-like particles. (+info)
Separate receptors mediate oxytocin and vasopressin stimulation of cAMP in rat inner medullary collecting duct cells.
The two neurohypophysial hormones arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin have actions in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) where both peptides induce an increase in cAMP accumulation. The present study has employed a novel IMCD cell line to determine whether these two hormones induce cAMP accumulation via common or separate receptors, and to characterize the potential receptors responsible. Equal volumes of vehicle (150 mM NaCl) or hormone/antagonist solutions were added to aliquots of 10(4) IMCD cells in the presence of 10(-3) M 3-isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and incubated at 37 degrees C for 4 min. cAMP levels were determined by radioimmunoassay and protein concentration by Bradford assay. Both AVP and oxytocin elicited dose-dependent increases in cAMP generation, though oxytocin was less potent than AVP (EC50 = 1.6 x 10(-8) M vs. 7.4 x 10(-10) M). AVP at 10(-8) M and oxytocin at 10(-8) M, concentrations sufficient to elicit near-maximal cAMP accumulation, resulted in cAMP levels of 73.4 +/- 1.7 and 69.0 +/- 3.3 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, respectively (n = 10), compared with the vehicle-treated basal value of 37.7 +/- 2.2 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (P < 0.001, n = 10). Combined AVP (10(-8) M) and oxytocin 10(-6) M) resulted in cAMP accumulation of 63.8 +/- 3.1 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (n = 10), which was not significantly different from the effect of oxytocin alone, but slightly less than that for AVP alone (P < 0.05). A submaximal concentration of AVP (10(-10) M) induced cAMP accumulation of 48.6 +/- 2.5 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (P < 0.01 compared with basal level of 34.9 +/- 2.4 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, n = 10), which was blocked in the presence of a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist (10(-7) M OPC-31260) but not by the oxytocin receptor antagonist (10(-6) M [Pen1,pMePhe2, Thr4,Orn8]oxytocin) (36.3 +/- 6.1 and 45.1 +/- 1.3 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 respectively, P < 0.05, n = 10). A submaximal concentration of oxytocin (10(-7) M) induced a cAMP accumulation of 45.8 +/- 1.8 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (n = 10), which was reduced by addition of 10(-6) M oxytocin antagonist (36.3 +/- 2.1 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, P < 0.05, n = 10), whereas co-incubation with 10(-6) M of the V2 receptor antagonist had no effect (43.2 +/- 1.3 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, n = 10). These results indicate that AVP and oxytocin induce cAMP accumulation from a common ATP pool in IMCD cells, and that separate vasopressin V2 and oxytocin receptor systems are involved, perhaps coupled to a common adenylate cyclase system. (+info)
Modulation of renal tubular cell function by RGS3.
The recently discovered family of regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) accelerates the intrinsic GTPase activity of certain Galpha subunits, thereby terminating G protein signaling. Particularly high mRNA levels of one family member, RGS3, are found in the adult kidney. To establish the temporal and spatial renal expression pattern of RGS3, a polyclonal antiserum was raised against the COOH terminus of RGS3. Staining of mouse renal tissue at different gestational stages revealed high levels of RGS3 within the developing and mature tubular epithelial cells. We tested whether RGS3 can modulate tubular migration, an important aspect of tubular development, in response to G protein-mediated signaling. Several mouse intermedullary collecting duct (mIMCD-3) cell lines were generated that expressed RGS3 under the control of an inducible promoter. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent chemoattractant that mediates its effects through heterotrimeric G proteins. We found that induction of RGS3 significantly reduced LPA-mediated cell migration in RGS3-expressing mIMCD-3 clones, whereas chemotaxis induced by hepatocyte growth factor remained unaffected by RGS3. Our findings suggest that RGS3 modulates tubular functions during renal development and in the adult kidney. (+info)