Changes in collagenases and TGF-beta precede structural alterations in a model of chronic renal fibrosis.
BACKGROUND: To study the role of collagenases and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the genesis of interstitial fibrosis, we used the model of bromoethylamine (BEA)-induced papillary necrosis, which is known to lead over a period of 1 to 12 months to interstitial fibrosis and renal insufficiency. METHODS: Rats were injected with BEA, and urine and kidney tissue (cortex and medulla) were collected after 1, 2, 3, 7, and 30 days. One kidney was perfused and fixed for morphological studies and immunostained for collagen type I, III, and IV. The other kidney was used to prepare cortex and medulla extracts for gelatinases (by fluorometric and zymographic techniques), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2 (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) and TGF-beta1 (by ELISA). RESULTS: Albuminuria and interstitial fibrosis were present in BEA rats by day 7, which continued until day 30. Immunocytochemical staining for collagen types showed that collagen III and IV increased in the interstitium by day 30, but collagen I remained unchanged. Gelatinase activity in the medulla decreased by 57% compared with control by day 2 and remained low until day 30. In the cortex, gelatinase activity remained unchanged between 0 and 7 days after BEA but decreased by 72% by day 30. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were decreased by 80% compared with day 0 in both the medulla (by day 1) and cortex (by day 2) and remained low up to day 30. TGF-beta1 immunoreactivity increased progressively until day 2 in the medulla (16-fold higher than control) and day 3 in the cortex (8-fold higher than control) and returned to control level by day 3 in the medulla and by day 30 in the cortex. Two days after BEA injection, the mRNA for TGF-beta1 was increased eightfold in the cortex and 12-fold in the medulla, and it remained high for up to 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: The fibrosis that follows papillary necrosis is associated with both high TGF-beta1 expression and depressed gelatinolytic activity. (+info)
Deafness and liver disease in a 57-year-old man: a medical history of Beethoven.
Ludwig van Beethoven had a number of medical conditions, including deafness and chronic liver disease, for which there are contemporary descriptions. An autopsy was performed on the day after his death. Physicians and historians have tried to reinterpret original sources to determine the causes of his deafness and systemic illnesses. We have reviewed the differential diagnoses that have been proposed by otologists and physicians. Clinical and post-mortem findings point to renal papillary necrosis and liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology. In the absence of further histological examination, there is no definitive answer to the cause of his deafness and gastro-intestinal symptoms. (+info)
Experimental hypertension. The effects of chemical ablation of the renal papilla on the blood pressure of rats with and without silver-clip hypertension.
Because of the ease with which ablation of the renal papilla of the rat can be effected by chemical means, a study was carried out to determine the effects of this ablation on the blood pressure. Significant elevation was found, lennding support to the idea of the antihypertensive role of the renal medulla. Constriction of one renal artery of rats with their papillae removed resulted in a more rapid and greater elevation of pressure than the same procedure in rats ith their papillae intact. The rise in pressure approximated the sum of the rises caused by removal of the papilla alone and by renal artery constriction alone, consistent with the idea of two mechanisms being at work in this model. (+info)
The induction of renal papillary necrosis in Gunn rats by analgesics and analgesic mixtures.
Homozygous members of the mutant Gunn strain of Wistar rats genetically lack the enzyme uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase. "High" and "low" dose gavage feeding for 18-34 days of an analgesic mixture containing aspirin, phenacetin and caffeine (APC) confirmed the previously reported susceptibility of these animals to analgesic induced renal papillary necrosis. Heterozygotes do not share the gross enzyme deficiency of homozygotes and, when treated with APC under identical conditions, failed to develop renal papillary necrosis. Groups of homozygotes were dosed by gavage with aspirin, phenacetin and paracetamol for 4 weeks. Renal papillary necrosis was produced by all 3 drugs, the lowest frequency of lesions occurring with phenacetin. It is postulated that the enzyme deficiency of homozygous Gunn rats influences the metabolism of analgesics to favour the excretion of nephrotoxic metabolites. The renal papillary necrosis appearing in these experiments is essentially an acute lesion, differing both in natural history and morphology from the renal papillary necrosis of analgesic nephropathy, suggesting that the pathogeneses of the experimental and human lesions differ. (+info)
Renal papillary necrosis.
Renal papillary necrosis (RPN) is a significant problem in human beings, especially in England and in Australia where it has been reported to account for 15% to 20% of patients needing renal transplants. Many compounds, including aspirin, phenacetin, phenylbutazone, indomethacin, mefenamic acid, flufenamic acid, fenoprofin, naproxen, and ibuprofen have been linked to renal papillary necrosis in human beings. Although the exact mechanism of RPN is unknown, there are several theories that have good scientific evidence behind them. Study of RPN in animals as models for the disease in human beings is limited by several factors, including anatomical differences between human beings and most animal species as well as technical difficulties in studying the renal papilla. (+info)
Glomerular lesions in experimental renal papillary necrosis. I. Ultrastructural aspects and some pathogenic considerations.
Papillary necrosis was induced in rats by a single intravenous injection of bromoethylamine hydrobromide (BEA). From 7 days on glomerular lesions were recognized. They consisted of electron dense deposits mainly subepithelial in location; mild mesangial hypercellularity and matrix increase. Immunofluorescence with anti-rat gammaglobulin was positive, showing granular fluorescence in relation with basement membrane and mesangium. The possibility is raised that these lesions are due to the pathogenic action of immune complexes, the antigen being one arising during the necrosis of the renal papilla. It is also suggested that this mechanism can be operative in ths human being in cases of papillary necrosis of the kidney. (+info)
Experimental renal papillary necrosis in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).
Sequential light microscopic and ultrastructural examination of kidneys from male and light microscopic examination of female Mongolian gerbils given 250 mg 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide (BEA)/kg body weight ip were performed. In addition, male Mongolian gerbils were treated with both BEA and ip injections of either water, dimethyl sulfoxide, piperonyl butoxide, or reserpine. Light microscopic renal lesions in male Mongolian gerbils progressed from congestion of the vasa recta of the proximal inner medulla at 6 hr post-treatment to total renal papillary necrosis (RPN) at 24 hr post-treatment. There was no sex difference in sensitivity to BEA. Ultrastructural alterations in male gerbils were restricted to the vasa recta. Vascular lesions of endothelial swelling and pericapillary edema in the vasa recta of the proximal inner medulla was observed 2 hr post-treatment and progressed to occlusion by platelets adherent to exposed basement membranes at 6 hr post-treatment. Diuresis induced by injections of saline and injections of dimethyl sulfoxide or piperonyl butoxide did not affect the development of BEA-induced RPN. Reserpine slowed the development of BEA-induced RPN by its vasodilatory effect on the renal vasculature, not by blocking the endothelial toxicity of BEA. RPN induced by BEA in the Mongolian gerbil is apparently an ischemic necrosis of the inner medulla that develops secondary to endothelial damage of the vasa recta. (+info)
Four patients who had ingested large amounts of phenacetin-salicylate medications were studied during a 12-month period. Renal failure had progressed slowly over a number of years. All patients took the drug because of psychogenic headache. Considerable skill was required to elicit the history of drug habituation. The major features of the nephropathy were multiple episodes of metabolic acidosis, minimal proteinuria, pyuria but no bacteriuria, and polyuria and polydipsia early in the course of drug ingestion. Papillary necrosis was not a prominent clinical feature of this series. Discontinuation of drug ingestion by one patient was associated with recovery of a considerable degree of renal function. Preliminary experimental evidence obtained in the dog suggests that salicylate impaired the efficiency of the counter-current multiplier by decreasing sodium transport in the ascending limb of Henle, and decreased the permeability to water of the distal convoluted and collecting tubule; phenacetin had no such effect. (+info)