Adducin polymorphism affects renal proximal tubule reabsorption in hypertension.
Abnormalities in renal sodium reabsorption may be involved in the development and maintenance of experimental and clinical hypertension. Adducin polymorphism is thought to regulate ion transport in the renal tubule. It has recently been shown that there is a significant linkage of alpha-adducin locus to essential hypertension and that the 460Trp allele is associated with hypertension. Patients with this allele display larger blood pressure changes with body sodium variation. The aim of this study was to test whether alpha-adducin polymorphism is involved in abnormalities of renal function. Because proximal tubular reabsorption has been shown to be tightly coupled to renal perfusion pressure, this segmental tubular function was investigated in 54 (29 Gly/Gly and 25 Gly/Trp) untreated hypertensive patients in basal conditions with the use of endogenous lithium concentration and uric acid. Fractional excretions of lithium and uric acid were significantly decreased in the Gly/Trp hypertensive patients compared with the Gly/Gly hypertensives. The contribution of alpha-adducin to fractional excretion of lithium was investigated by multiple regression analysis. Adducin genotype was significantly (R2=0.11, F=6.5; P<0.01) and directly related to fraction excretion of lithium; gender, age, urinary Na+, urinary uric acid, mean blood pressure, and plasma renin activity were not related. In conclusion, the adducin gene can be considered to be a 'renal hypertensive gene' that modulates the capacity of tubular epithelial cells to transport Na+ and hence contributes to the level of blood pressure. (+info)
Regulation of renal urea transporters.
Urea is important for the conservation of body water due to its role in the production of concentrated urine in the renal inner medulla. Physiologic data demonstrate that urea is transported by facilitated and by active urea transporter proteins. The facilitated urea transporter (UT-A) in the terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) permits very high rates of transepithelial urea transport and results in the delivery of large amounts of urea into the deepest portions of the inner medulla where it is needed to maintain a high interstitial osmolality for concentrating the urine maximally. Four isoforms of the UT-A urea transporter family have been cloned to date. The facilitated urea transporter (UT-B) in erythrocytes permits these cells to lose urea rapidly as they traverse the ascending vasa recta, thereby preventing loss of urea from the medulla and decreasing urine-concentrating ability by decreasing the efficiency of countercurrent exchange, as occurs in Jk null individuals (who lack Kidd antigen). In addition to these facilitated urea transporters, three sodium-dependent, secondary active urea transport mechanisms have been characterized functionally in IMCD subsegments: (1) active urea reabsorption in the apical membrane of initial IMCD from low-protein fed or hypercalcemic rats; (2) active urea reabsorption in the basolateral membrane of initial IMCD from furosemide-treated rats; and (3) active urea secretion in the apical membrane of terminal IMCD from untreated rats. This review focuses on the physiologic, biophysical, and molecular evidence for facilitated and active urea transporters, and integrative studies of their acute and long-term regulation in rats with reduced urine-concentrating ability. (+info)
Lessons on renal physiology from transgenic mice lacking aquaporin water channels.
Several aquaporin-type water channels are expressed in kidney: AQP1 in the proximal tubule, thin descending limb of Henle, and vasa recta; AQP2, AQP3, and AQP4 in the collecting duct; AQP6 in the papilla; and AQP7 in the proximal tubule. AQP2 is the vasopressin-regulated water channel that is important in hereditary and acquired diseases affecting urine-concentrating ability. It has been difficult to establish the roles of the other aquaporins in renal physiology because suitable aquaporin inhibitors are not available. One approach to the problem has been to generate and analyze transgenic knockout mice in which individual aquaporins have been selectively deleted by targeted gene disruption. Phenotype analysis of kidney and extrarenal function in knockout mice has been very informative in defining the role of aquaporins in organ physiology and addressing basic questions regarding the route of transepithelial water transport and the mechanism of near iso-osmolar fluid reabsorption. This article describes new renal physiologic insights revealed by phenotype analysis of aquaporin-knockout mice and the prospects for further basic and clinical developments. (+info)
Postnatal time frame for renal vulnerability to enalapril in rats.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade in neonatal, but not in weaned, rats induces irreversible renal histologic abnormalities and an impaired urinary concentrating ability. The aim of the present study was to define the postnatal time frame when the rat kidney is vulnerable to an interruption of the renin-angiotensin system. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of enalapril (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) during different age intervals within 3 to 24 d,of age. Fluid handling and urinary concentrating ability, renal function under pentobarbital anesthesia, and kidney histology using stereologic techniques were evaluated in adult rats. Enalapril treatment within 3 to 13 d after birth induced abnormalities in renal function and morphology long-term, whereas treatment initiated at 14 d of age did not. The main histologic alterations were papillary atrophy, and a reduction in the volume of tubular epithelial cells in association with an increase in the proportion of interstitium, throughout the cortex and outer medulla. Functionally, the predominant defect was an impairment in urinary concentrating ability, which correlated with the degree of papillary atrophy. In conclusion, the vulnerable age interval for the induction of irreversible renal abnormalities by enalapril was the first 13 d after birth in the rat. This postnatal time span coincides with the completion of nephrogenesis and a period of marked tubular growth and differentiation, suggesting a pivotal role for angiotensin II in these processes. (+info)
Decreased renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter abundance in mice with heterozygous disruption of the G(s)alpha gene.
Transport processes along the nephron are regulated in part by hormone stimulation of adenylyl cyclases mediated by the heterotrimeric G protein G(s). To assess the role of this pathway in the regulation of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter abundance in the renal thick ascending limb (TAL), we studied mice with heterozygous disruption of the Gnas gene, which codes for the alpha-subunit of G(s). Outer medullary G(s)alpha protein abundance (as assessed by semiquantitative immunoblotting) and glucagon-stimulated cAMP production were significantly reduced in the heterozygous G(s)alpha knockout mice (GSKO) relative to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, Na-K-2Cl cotransporter protein abundance in the outer medulla was significantly reduced (band density, 48% of WT). In addition, GSKO mice had a significantly reduced (72% of WT) urinary osmolality in response to a single injection of 1-deamino-[8-D-arginine]vasopressin (DDAVP), a vasopressin analog. In contrast, outer medullary protein expression of the type 3 Na/H exchanger (NHE-3) or Tamm-Horsfall protein did not differ between the GSKO mice and their WT littermates. However, abundance of type VI adenylyl cyclase was markedly decreased in the outer medullas of GSKO mice, suggesting a novel feed-forward regulatory mechanism. We conclude that expression of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter of the TAL is dependent on G(s)alpha-mediated hormone stimulation, most likely due to long-term changes in cellular cAMP levels. (+info)
Altered expression of Na transporters NHE-3, NaPi-II, Na-K-ATPase, BSC-1, and TSC in CRF rat kidneys.
In chronic renal failure (CRF), reduction in renal mass leads to an increase in the filtration rates of the remaining nephrons and increased excretion of sodium per nephron. To address the mechanisms involved in the increased sodium excretion, we determined the total kidney levels and the densities per nephron of the major renal NaCl transporters in rats with experimental CRF. Two weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy (reducing the total number of nephrons to approximately 24 +/- 8%), the rats were azotemic and displayed increased Na excretion. Semiquantitative immunoblotting revealed significant reduction in the total kidney levels of the proximal tubule Na transporters NHE-3 (48% of control), NaPi-II (13%), and Na-K-ATPase (30%). However, the densities per nephron of NHE-3, NaPi-II, and Na-K-ATPase were not significantly altered in remnant kidneys, despite the extensive hypertrophy of remaining nephrons. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the reduction in NHE-3 and Na-K-ATPase labeling densities in the proximal tubule. In contrast, there was no significant reduction in the total kidney levels of the thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule NaCl transporters BSC-1 and TSC, respectively. This corresponded to a 3.6 and 2.5-fold increase in densities per nephron, respectively (confirmed by immunocytochemistry). In conclusion, in this rat CRF model: 1) increased fractional sodium excretion is associated with altered expression of proximal tubule Na transporter expression (NHE-3, NaPi-II, and Na-K-ATPase), consistent with glomerulotubular imbalance in the face of increased single-nephron glomerular filtration rate; and 2) compensatory increases in BSC-1 and TSC expression per nephron occur in distal segments. (+info)
Vasopressin and urinary concentrating activity in diabetes mellitus.
In diabetes mellitus (DM), the high urine flow rate suggests that urinary concentrating capacity is impaired. However, several studies have shown that vasopressin is elevated in DM and the consequences of this elevation have not yet been characterized. This study reevaluated renal function and water handling in male Wistar rats with Streptozotocin-induced DM, and in control rats. During five weeks after induction of DM, urine was collected in metabolic cages and a blood sample was drawn during the third week. Control rats (CONT) were studied in parallel. On week 3, urine flow rate was tenfold higher in DM than in CONT rats and urinary osmolality was reduced by half along with a markedly higher osmolar excretion (DM/CONT = 5.87), due for a large part to glucose but also to urea (DM/CONT = 2.49). Glucose represented 52% of total osmoles (90.3 +/- 6.5 mmol/d out of 172 +/- 14 mosm/d). Free water reabsorption was markedly higher in DM rats compared to CONT (326 +/- 24 vs 81 +/- 5 ml/d). In other rats treated in the same way, urinary excretion of vasopressin was found to be markedly elevated (15.1 +/- 4.1 vs 1.44 +/- 0.23 ng/d). In DM rats, glucose concentration in urine was 17 fold higher than in plasma, and urea concentration 14 fold higher. Both urine flow rate and free water reabsorption were positively correlated with the sum of glucose and urea excretions (r = 0.967 and 0.653, respectively) thus demonstrating that the urinary concentrating activity of the kidney increased in proportion to the increased load of these two organic solutes. These results suggest that vasopressin elevation in DM contributes to increase urinary concentrating activity and thus to limit water requirements induced by the metabolic derangements of DM. The possible deleterious consequences of sustained high level of vasopressin in DM are discussed. (+info)
Abnormal water metabolism in mice lacking the type 1A receptor for ANG II.
Mice lacking AT(1A) receptors for ANG II have a defect in urinary concentration manifested by an inability to increase urinary osmolality to levels seen in controls after thirsting. This defect results in extreme serum hypertonicity during water deprivation. In the basal state, plasma vasopressin levels are similar in wild-type controls and Agtr1a -/- mice. Plasma vasopressin levels increase normally in the AT(1A) receptor-deficient mice after 24 h of water deprivation, suggesting that the defect in urine concentration is intrinsic to the kidney. Using magnetic resonance microscopy, we find that the absence of AT(1A) receptors is associated with a modest reduction in the distance from the kidney surface to the tip of the papilla. However, this structural abnormality seems to play little role in the urinary concentrating defect in Agtr1a -/- mice since the impairment is largely reproduced in wild-type mice by treatment with an AT(1)-receptor antagonist. These studies demonstrate a critical role for the AT(1A) receptor in maintaining inner medullary structures in the kidney and in regulating renal water excretion. (+info)