(1/70) Accumulation of 3-ketosteroids induced by itraconazole in azole-resistant clinical Candida albicans isolates.
The effects of itraconazole on ergosterol biosynthesis were investigated in a series of 16 matched clinical Candida albicans isolates which had been previously analyzed for mechanisms of resistance to azoles (D. Sanglard, K. Kuchler, F. Ischer, J. L. Pagani, M. Monod, and J. Bille, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 39:2378-2386, 1995). Under control conditions, all isolates contained ergosterol as the predominant sterol, except two strains (C48 and C56). In isolates C48 and C56, both less susceptible to azoles than their parent, C43, substantial concentrations (20 to 30%) of 14alpha-methyl-ergosta-8,24(28)-diene-3beta,6alpha-dio l (3, 6-diol) were found. Itraconazole treatment of C43 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis (50% inhibitory concentration, 2 nM) and accumulation of 3,6-diol (up to 60% of the total sterols) together with eburicol, lanosterol, obtusifoliol, 14alpha-methyl-ergosta-5,7,22,24(28)-tetraene-3betaol, and 14alpha-methyl-fecosterol. In strains C48 and C56, no further increase of 3,6-diol was observed after exposure to itraconazole. Ergosterol synthesis was less sensitive to itraconazole inhibition, as was expected for these azole-resistant isolates which overexpress ATP-binding cassette transporter genes CDR1 and CDR2. In addition to 3,6-diol, substantial amounts of obtusifolione were found after exposure to itraconazole. This toxic 3-ketosteroid was demonstrated previously to accumulate after itraconazole treatment in Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum but has not been reported in Candida isolates. Accumulation of obtusifolione correlated with nearly complete growth inhibition in these azole-resistant strains compared to that found in the susceptible parent strain, although the onset of growth inhibition only occurred at higher concentrations of itraconazole. ERG25 and ERG26 are the only genes assigned to the 4-demethylation process, of which the 3-ketoreductase is part. To verify whether mutations in these ERG25 genes contributed to obtusifolione accumulation, their nucleotide sequences were determined in all three related isolates. No mutations in ERG25 alleles of isolates C48 and C56 were found, suggesting that this gene is not involved in obtusifolione accumulation. The molecular basis for the accumulation of this sterol in these two strains remains to be established. (+info)
(2/70) Inhibition of the steroidogenic effects of cholera and heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxins by GM1 ganglioside: evidence for a similar receptor site for the two toxins.
The effects of three different ganglioside preparations on cholera enterotoxin (CT) and heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin (ECT)-induced steroidogenesis in Y1 and OS3 adrenal tumor cells in tissue culture were examined. Only with GM1 ganglioside was any inhibition of the toxins' effects noted. Concentrations of the crude ECT preparation that gave similar morphogenic and steroidogenic effects as CT were inhibited by the same amount or less of GM1 as that required to inhibit the effects of CT. The results of competition experiments also demonstrated that previous incubation of GM1 with one toxin could inhibit the ganglioside's ability to inactivate the other toxin. These findings indicate that at least for Y1 and OS3 adrenal tumor cells, GM1 may resemble or be the receptor for both CT and ECT. (+info)
(3/70) Biosynthesis of bile acids in man. Hydroxylation of the C27-steroid side chain.
The first step in the degradation of the steroid side chain during biosynthesis of bile acids from cholesterol in man was studied in microsomal and mitochondrial fraction of homogenate of livers from 14 patients. The microsomal fraction was found to catalyze an efficient 25-hydroxylation of 5,8-cholestane-3a,7a,12atriol. A small extent of 23-, 24-, and 26-hydroxylation of the same substrate was observed. 53-Cholestane-3a,7adiol was hydroxylated in the 25-position only to a very small extent. The mitochondrial fraction was found to catalyze 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol, 5-cholestene-3P,7a-diol, 5P-cholestane-3a,7a-diol, 7a-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, and 5,0-cholestane-3a,7a,12a-triol. Addition of Mg++ stimulated the 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol but had no effect or an inhibitory effect on 26-hydroxylation of the other substrates, indicating a heterogeneity of the mitochondrial 26-hydroxylating system. The level of 26-hydroxylase activity towards different substrates varied considerably with different mitochondrial preparations. The roles of the microsomal and mitochondrial 26- hydroxylations as well as the microsomal 25-hydroxylation in biosynthesis of bile acids in man are discussed. The results indicate that microsomal 26-hydroxylation is less important than mitochondrial 26-hydroxylation under normal conditions. The possibility that microsomal 25-hydroxylation is important cannot be ruled out. (+info)
(4/70) Cholesterol ester formation in cultured human fibroblasts. Stimulation by oxygenated sterols.
Incubation of monolayers of cultured human fibroblasts with oxygenated sterols (25-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, or 6-ketocholestanol) markedly enhanced the rate at which the cells esterified their endogenous cholesterol and produced an increase in the cellular content of cholesterol esters. The enhanced esterification capacity was associated with an increase in the activity of a membrane-bound fatty acyl-CoA:cholesteryl acyltransferase. Incubation of cells for 5 hours with 5 mug/ml of 25-hydroxycholesterol produced an 8-fold increase in the specific activity of this enzyme when assayed in cell-free extracts. Since the oxygenated sterols that elevated the activity of fatty acyl-CoA:cholesteryl acyl-transferase also suppressed the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the data suggest that the processes of cholesterol ester formation and cholesterol synthesis in human fibroblasts are regulated in a reciprocal manner by coordinate changes in the activities of these two membrane-bound enzymes. (+info)
(5/70) Roles of dimerization in folding and stability of ketosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas putida biotype B.
Equilibrium and kinetic analyses have been performed to elucidate the roles of dimerization in folding and stability of KSI from Pseudomonas putida biotype B. Folding was reversible in secondary and tertiary structures as well as in activity. Equilibrium unfolding transition, as monitored by fluorescence and ellipticity measurements, could be modeled by a two-state mechanism without thermodynamically stable intermediates. Consistent with the two-state model, one dimensional (1D) NMR spectra and gel-filtration chromatography analysis did not show any evidence for a folded monomeric intermediate. Interestingly enough, Cys 81 located at the dimeric interface was modified by DTNB before unfolding. This inconsistent result might be explained by increased dynamic motion of the interface residues in the presence of urea to expose Cys 81 more frequently without the dimer dissociation. The refolding process, as monitored by fluorescence change, could best be described by five kinetic phases, in which the second phase was a bimolecular step. Because <30% of the total fluorescence change occurred during the first step, most of the native tertiary structure may be driven to form by the bimolecular step. During the refolding process, negative ellipticity at 225 nm increased very fast within 80 msec to account for >80% of the total amplitude. This result suggests that the protein folds into a monomer containing most of the alpha-helical structures before dimerization. Monitoring the enzyme activity during the refolding process could estimate the activity of the monomer that is not fully active. Together, these results stress the importance of dimerization in the formation and maintenance of the functional native tertiary structure. (+info)
(6/70) Concentration-dependent association of delta5-3-ketosteroid isomerase of Pseudomonas testosteroni.
Gel chromatography and ultracentrifugation studies show that delta5-3-ketosteroid isomerase of Pseudomonas testosteroni a dimer with a molecular weight of 26,800 at concentrations below 1 mg per ml, undergoes reversible, concentration-dependent association at higher enzyme concentrations. In the concentration range between 0.04 and 15.6 mg per ml, apparent molecular radii of 23 A to 36 A and molecular weights of 26,000 to 69,000 were observed. The latter value represents the weight average molecular weight of two or more ploymerization species in rapid equilibrium, rather than a discrete polymeric form of the enzyme. The isomerase dimer has been found to be unusually stable to dissociation upon dilution, even at concentrations in the nanogram per ml range. Evidence is presented which suggests that the enzyme is present as a dimer in P. testosteroni cells and that this is a catalytically active species. The isomerase monomer has been obtained and its molecular weight studied by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. A new determination of the extinction coefficient of the isomerase gives the value of 0.336 for the absorbance at 280 nm in a 1-cm light path of a solution containing 1 mg of the isomerase per ml. (+info)
(7/70) 0-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride as a sensitive derivatizing agent for the electron capture gas liquid chromatographic analysis of keto steroids.
0-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride was used to prepare oximes of steroids with keto groups in selected positions; 3,17 and 20-monoketo; 3,17 and 3,20-diketo. Some of the 3-keto steroids had hindered 17-hydroxyl groups which were not readily amenable to esterification with perfluoroanhydrides, the most commonly used derivatizing agents for electron capture gas chromatographic analysis of hydroxy steroids. The oximes were readily prepared from 5 ng of each of the compounds tested, and with testosterone it was demonstrated that the derivative could be prepared from as little as 0.1 ng. The derivatives were stable to gas chromatography and extremely sensitive to electron capture detection. The sensitivity ranged from 1.5 X 10(4) coulombs per mole of progesterone. Because of the ease of preparation of the derivatives, their stability in common solvents and analytical manipulative techniques, the reagent would be suitable for the micro analysis of biologically significant keto steroids by electron capture gas chromatography. (+info)
(8/70) Chemical modification of amino acid residues associated with the delta-4-3-ketosteroid-dependent photoinactivation of delta-5-3-ketosteroid isomerase.
The photoinactivation of the Delta (5)-3-ketosteroid isomerase of Pseudomonas testosteroni in the presence of 3-oxo-4-estren-17beta-yl acetate and air is accompanied by destruction of histidine and aspartate (or asparagine). The first order rate constant of photoinactivation of the enzyme is equal, within experimental error, to the first order rate constant for the destruction of a single aspartate (or asparagine) residue and is considerably greater than the first order rate constant for the destruction of a single residue of histidine. When the photolysis is carried out under anaerobic conditions, only aspartic acid (or asparagine) is destroyed as enzyme is inactivated. Both inactivation and aspartate (or asparagine) destruction occur to a greater extent in the absence of oxygen than in its presence. The destruction of histidine, on the other hand, is found to be strictly oxygen-dependent. These results suggest that photochemical modification of a single residue of aspartate (or asparagine) is largely, if not entirely, responsible for photoinactivation of the enzyme under these conditions. When irradiated in the presence of 3-oxo-4-entren-17beta-yl acetate, performic acid-oxidized bovine pancreatic ribonuclease does not suffer any detectable destruction of its aspartic or asparaginyl residues but does undergo significant destruction of its histidine residues. These observations suggest that the aspartate (or asparagine) residue modification found with isomerase is an active site-directed photochemical reaction, whereas the modification of histidine may not be. (+info)