(1/535) Lack of genic similarity between two sibling species of drosophila as revealed by varied techniques.
Acrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed on the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase in sixty isochromosomal lines of Drosophila persimilis from three geographic populations. Sequential electrophoretic analysis using varied gel concentrations and buffers revealed twenty-three alleles in this species where only five had been described previously. These new electrophoretic techniques also detected a profound increase in divergence of gene frequencies at this locus between D. persimilis and its sibling species D. pseudoobscura. The implications of these results for questions of speciation and the maintenance of genetic variability are discussed. (+info)
(2/535) Genetic heterogeneity within electrophoretic "alleles" of xanthine dehydrogenase in Drosophila pseudoobscura.
An experimental plan for an exhaustive determination of genic variation at structural gene loci is presented. In the initial steps of this program, 146 isochromosomal lines from 12 geographic populations of D. pseudoobscura were examined for allelic variation of xanthine dehydrogenase by the serial use of 4 different electrophoretic conditions and a head stability test. The 5 criteria revealed a total of 37 allelic classes out of the 146 genomes examined where only 6 had been previously revealed by the usual method of gel electrophoresis. This immense increase in genic variation also showed previously unsuspected population differences between the main part of the species distribution and the isolated population of Bogota population. The average heterozygosity at the Xdh locus is at least 72% in natural populations. This result, together with the very large number of alleles segregating and the pattern of allelic frequencies, has implications for theories of genetic polymorphism which are discussed. (+info)
(3/535) Dietary thiamin level influences levels of its diphosphate form and thiamin-dependent enzymic activities of rat liver.
This study was prompted by our incomplete understanding of the mechanism responsible for the clinical benefits of pharmacological doses of thiamin in some patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and the question of whether thiamin diphosphate (TDP), a potent inhibitor of the activity of the protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates the isolated branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, affects the activity state of the complex. Rats were fed a chemically-defined diet containing graded levels of thiamin (0, 0.275, 0.55, 5.5, and 55 mg thiamin/kg diet). Maximal weight gain was attained over a 3-wk period only in rats fed diets with 5.5 and 55 mg thiamin/kg. Feeding rats the thiamin-free diet for just 2 d caused loss of nearly half of the TDP from liver mitochondria. Three more days caused over 70% loss, an additional 3 wk, over 90%. Starvation for 2 d had no effect, suggesting a mechanism for conservation of TDP in this nutritional state. Mitochondrial TDP was higher in rats fed pharmacological amounts of thiamin (55 mg thiamin/kg diet) than in rats fed adequate thiamin for maximal growth. Varying dietary thiamin had marked but opposite effects on the activities of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha-KGDH) and BCKDH. Thiamin deficiency decreased alpha-KGDH activity, increased BCKDH activity, and increased the proportion of BCKDH in the active, dephosphorylated, state. Excess dietary thiamin had the opposite effects. TDP appears to be more tightly associated with alpha-KGDH than BCKDH in thiamin-deficient rats, perhaps denoting retention of alpha-KGDH activity at the expense of BCKDH activity. Thus, thiamin deficiency and excess cause large changes in mitochondrial TDP levels that have a major influence on the activities of the keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. (+info)
(4/535) Mechanisms for GroEL/GroES-mediated folding of a large 86-kDa fusion polypeptide in vitro.
Our understanding of mechanisms for GroEL/GroES-assisted protein folding to date has been derived mostly from studies with small proteins. Little is known concerning the interaction of these chaperonins with large multidomain polypeptides during folding. In the present study, we investigated chaperonin-dependent folding of a large 86-kDa fusion polypeptide, in which the mature maltose-binding protein (MBP) sequence was linked to the N terminus of the alpha subunit of the decarboxylase (E1) component of the human mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The fusion polypeptide, MBP-alpha, when co-expressed with the beta subunit of E1, produced a chimeric protein MBP-E1 with an (MBP-alpha)2beta2 structure, similar to the alpha2 beta2 structure in native E1. Reactivation of MBP-E1 denatured in 8 M urea was absolutely dependent on GroEL/GroES and Mg2+-ATP, and exhibited strikingly slow kinetics with a rate constant of 376 M-1 s-1, analogous to denatured untagged E1. Chaperonin-mediated refolding of the MBP-alpha fusion polypeptide showed that the folding of the MBP moiety was about 7-fold faster than that of the alpha moiety on the same chain with rate constants of 1.9 x 10(-3) s-1 and 2.95 x 10(-4) s-1, respectively. This explained the occurrence of an MBP-alpha. GroEL binary complex that was isolated with amylose resin from the refolding mixture and transformed Escherichia coli lysates. The data support the thesis that distinct functional sequences in a large polypeptide exhibit different folding characteristics on the same GroEL scaffold. Moreover, we show that when the alpha.GroEL complex (molar ratio 1:1) was incubated with GroES, the latter was capable of capping either the very ring that harbored the 48-kDa (His)6-alpha polypeptide (in cis) or the opposite unoccupied cavity (in trans). In contrast, the MBP-alpha.GroEL (1:1) complex was capped by GroES exclusively in the trans configuration. These findings suggest that the productive folding of a large multidomain polypeptide can only occur in the GroEL cavity that is not sequestered by GroES. (+info)
(5/535) Interaction of thioredoxins with target proteins: role of particular structural elements and electrostatic properties of thioredoxins in their interplay with 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes.
The thioredoxin action upon the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes is investigated by using different thioredoxins, both wild-type and mutated. The attacking cysteine residue of thioredoxin is established to be essential for the thioredoxin-dependent activation of the complexes. Mutation of the buried cysteine residue to serine is not crucial for the activation, but prevents inhibition of the complexes, exhibited by the Clamydomonas reinhardtii thioredoxin m disulfide. Site-directed mutagenesis of D26, W31, F/W12, and Y/A70 (the Escherichia coli thioredoxin numbering is employed for all the thioredoxins studied) indicates that both the active site and remote residues of thioredoxin are involved in its interplay with the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Sequences of 11 thioredoxin species tested biochemically are aligned. The thioredoxin residues at the contact between the alpha3/3(10) and alpha1 helices, the length of the alpha1 helix and the charges in the alpha2-beta3 and beta4-beta5 linkers are found to correlate with the protein influence on the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes (the secondary structural elements of thioredoxin are defined according to Eklund H et al., 1991, Proteins 11:13-28). The distribution of the charges on the surface of the thioredoxin molecules is analyzed. The analysis reveals the species specific polarization of the thioredoxin active site surroundings, which corresponds to the efficiency of the thioredoxin interplay with the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase systems. The most effective mitochondrial thioredoxin is characterized by the strongest polarization of this area and the highest value of the electrostatic dipole vector of the molecule. Not only the magnitude, but also the orientation of the dipole vector show correlation with the thioredoxin action. The dipole direction is found to be significantly influenced by the charges of the residues 13/14, 51, and 83/85, which distinguish the activating and inhibiting thioredoxin disulfides. (+info)
(6/535) In vitro transcriptional studies of the bkd operon of Pseudomonas putida: L-branched-chain amino acids and D-leucine are the inducers.
BkdR is the transcriptional activator of the bkd operon, which encodes the four proteins of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Pseudomonas putida. In this study, hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that BkdR bound to only one face of DNA over the same region identified in DNase I protection assays. Deletions of even a few bases in the 5' region of the BkdR-binding site greatly reduced transcription, confirming that the entire protected region is necessary for transcription. In vitro transcription of the bkd operon was obtained by using a vector containing the bkdR-bkdA1 intergenic region plus the putative rho-independent terminator of the bkd operon. Substrate DNA, BkdR, and any of the L-branched-chain amino acids or D-leucine was required for transcription. Branched-chain keto acids, D-valine, and D-isoleucine did not promote transcription. Therefore, the L-branched-chain amino acids and D-leucine are the inducers of the bkd operon. The concentration of L-valine required for half-maximal transcription was 2.8 mM, which is similar to that needed to cause half-maximal proteolysis due to a conformational change in BkdR. A model for transcriptional activation of the bkd operon by BkdR during enzyme induction which incorporates these results is presented. (+info)
(7/535) Phenylacetyl-CoA:acceptor oxidoreductase, a membrane-bound molybdenum-iron-sulfur enzyme involved in anaerobic metabolism of phenylalanine in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica.
Phenylacetic acids are common intermediates in the microbial metabolism of various aromatic substrates including phenylalanine. In the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica phenylacetate is oxidized, under anoxic conditions, to the common intermediate benzoyl-CoA via the intermediates phenylacetyl-CoA and phenylglyoxylate (benzoylformate). The enzyme that catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of phenylacetyl-CoA has been purified from this bacterium and studied. The enzyme preparation catalyzes the reaction phenylacetyl-CoA + 2 quinone + 2 H2O --> phenylglyoxylate + 2 quinone H2 + CoASH. Phenylacetyl-CoA:acceptor oxidoreductase is a membrane-bound molybdenum-iron-sulfur protein. The purest preparations contained three subunits of 93, 27, and 26 kDa. Ubiquinone is most likely to act as the electron acceptor, and the oxygen atom introduced into the product is derived from water. The protein preparations contained 0.66 mol Mo, 30 mol Fe, and 25 mol acid-labile sulfur per mol of native enzyme, assuming a native molecular mass of 280 kDa. Phenylglyoxylyl-CoA, but not mandelyl-CoA, was observed as a free intermediate. All enzyme preparations also catalyzed the subsequent hydrolytic release of coenzyme A from phenylglyoxylyl-CoA but not from phenylacetyl-CoA. The enzyme is reversibly inactivated by a low concentration of cyanide, but is remarkably stable with respect to oxygen. This new member of the molybdoproteins represents the first example of an enzyme which catalyzes the alpha-oxidation of a CoA-activated carboxylic acid without utilizing molecular oxygen. (+info)
(8/535) Decreased availability of GDP-L-fucose in a patient with LAD II with normal GDP-D-mannose dehydratase and FX protein activities.
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II (LAD II) is caused by a disorder in the metabolism of GDP-L-fucose, which causes hypofucosylation of glycoconjugates. This study analyzes a newly identified LAD II patient who shows the same severe hypofucosylation of glycoconjugates as the other described patients. However, in vitro assays of cytosolic extracts from leukocytes and fibroblasts of the patient demonstrated a normal GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis from GDP-D-mannose. Analysis of the two enzymes involved in the pathway, GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and FX protein, revealed normal numbers of transcripts without any detectable mutations within the coding regions of either gene. In contrast to previously published observations [Sturla et al. (1998) FEBS Lett. 429, 274-278], the major pathway of GDP-L-fucose synthesis can be normal in LAD II. (+info)