Control of ketogenesis from amino acids. IV. Tissue specificity in oxidation of leucine, tyrosine, and lysine.
In vitro and in vivo studies were made on the tissue specificity of oxidation of the ketogenic amino acids, leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. In in vitro studies the abilities of slices of various tissues of rats to form 14CO2 from 14C-amino acids were examined. With liver, but not kidney slices, addition of alpha-ketoglutarate was required for the maximum activities with these amino acids. Among the various tissues tested, kidney had the highest activity for lysine oxidation, followed by liver; other tissues showed very low activity. Kidney also had the highest activity for leucine oxidation, followed by diaphragm; liver and adipose tissue had lower activities. Liver had the highest activity for tyrosine oxidation, but kidney also showed considerable activity; other tissues had negligible activity. In in vivo studies the blood flow through the liver or kidney was stopped by ligation of the blood vessels. Then labeled amino acids were injected and recovery of radioactivity in respiratory 14CO2 was measured. In contrast to results with slices, no difference was found in the respiratory 14CO2 when the renal blood vessels were or were not ligated. On the contrary ligation of the hepatic vessels suppressed the oxidations of lysine and tyrosine completely and that of leucine partially. Thus in vivo, lysine and tyrosine seem to be metabolized mainly in the liver, whereas leucine is metabolized mostly in extrahepatic tissues and partly in liver. Use of tissue slices seems to be of only limited value in elucidating the metabolisms of these amino acids. (+info)
Regulation of autophosphorylation of Escherichia coli nitrogen regulator II by the PII signal transduction protein.
The nitrogen regulator II (NRII or NtrB)-NRI (NtrC) two-component signal transduction system regulates the transcription of nitrogen-regulated genes in Escherichia coli. The NRII protein has both kinase and phosphatase activities and catalyzes the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of NRI, which activates transcription when phosphorylated. The phosphatase activity of NRII is activated by the PII signal transduction protein. We showed that PII was also an inhibitor of the kinase activity of NRII. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that the kinase and phosphatase activities of two-component system kinase/phosphatase proteins are coordinately and reciprocally regulated. The ability of PII to regulate NRII is allosterically controlled by the small-molecule effector 2-ketoglutarate, which binds to PII. We studied the effect of 2-ketoglutarate on the regulation of the kinase and phosphatase activities of NRII by PII, using a coupled enzyme system to measure the rate of cleavage of ATP by NRII. The data were consistent with the following hypothesis: when not complexed with 2-ketoglutarate, PII cannot bind to NRII and has no effect on its competing NRI kinase and phosphatase activities. Under these conditions, the kinase activity of NRII is dominant. At low 2-ketoglutarate concentrations, PII trimers complexed with a single molecule of 2-ketoglutarate interact with NRII to inhibit its kinase activity and activate its phosphatase activity. However, at high 2-ketoglutarate concentrations, PII binds additional ligand molecules and is rendered incapable of binding to NRII, thereby releasing inhibition of NRII's kinase activity and effectively inhibiting its phosphatase activity (by failing to stimulate it). (+info)
Studies on the influence of fatty acids on pyruvate dehydrogenase interconversion in rat-liver mitochondria.
1. The effect of fatty acids on the interconversion of pyruvate dehydrogenase between its active (nonphosphorylated) and inactive (phosphorylated) forms was measured in rat liver mitochondria respiring in state 3 with pyruvate plus malate and 2-oxoglutarate plus malate and during state 4 to state 3 transition in the presence of different substrates. The content of intramitochondrial adenine nucleotides was determined in the parallel experiments. 2. Decrease of the intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio with propionate and its increase with palmitoyl-L-carnitine in state 3 is accompanied by a shift of the steady-state of the pyruvate dehydrogenase system towards the active or the inactive form, respectively. 3. Transition from the high energy state (state4) to the active respiration (state3) in mitochondria oxidizing 2-oxoglutarate or plamitoyl-L-carnitine causes an increase of the amount of the active form of pyruvate dehydrogenase due to the decrease of ATP/ADP ratio in the matrix. 4. No change in ATP/ADP ratio can be observed in the presence of octanoate in mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate or 2-oxoglutarate in state 3 or during state 4 to state 3 transition. Simultanelusly, no significant change in phosphorylation state of pyruvate dehydrogenase occurs and a low amount of the enzyme in the active form is present with octanoate or octanoate plus 2-oxoglutarate. Pyruvate abolishes this effect of octanoate and shifts the steady-state of pyruvate dehydrogenase system towards the active form. 5. These results indicate that fatty acids influence the interconversion of pyruvate dehydrogenase mainly by changing intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio. However, the comparison of the steady-state level of the pyruvate dehydrogenase system in the presence of different substrates in various metabolic conditions provides some evidence that accumulation of acetyl-CoA and high level of NADH may promote the phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. 6. Pyruvate exerts its protective effect against phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the presence of fatty acids of short, medium or long chain in a manner which depends on its concentration. It is suggested that in isolated mitochondria pyruvate counteracts the effect of acetyl-CoA and NADH on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. (+info)
Metabolism and the triggering of germination of Bacillus megaterium. Concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, adenine nucleotides and nicotinamide nucleotides during germination.
A considerable amount of evidence suggests that metabolism of germinants or metabolism stimulated by them is involved in triggering bacterial-spore germination. On the assumption that such a metabolic trigger might lead to relatively small biochemical changes in the first few minutes of germination, sensitive analytical techniques were used to detect any changes in spore components during the L-alanine-triggered germination of Bacillus megaterium KM spores. These experiments showed that no changes in spore free amino acids or ATP occurred until 2-3 min after L-alanine addition. Spores contained almost no oxo acids (pyruvate, alpha-oxoglutarate, oxaloacetate), malate or reduced NAD. These compounds were again not detectable until 2-3 min after addition of germinants. It is suggested, therefore, that metabolism associated with these intermediates is not involved in the triggering of germination of this organism. (+info)
The reaction of the substrate analog 2-ketoglutarate with adenosylcobalamin-dependent glutamate mutase.
Glutamate mutase is one of several adenosylcobalamin-dependent enzymes that catalyze unusual rearrangements that proceed through a mechanism involving free radical intermediates. The enzyme exhibits remarkable specificity, and so far no molecules other than L-glutamate and L-threo-3-methylaspartate have been found to be substrates. Here we describe the reaction of glutamate mutase with the substrate analog, 2-ketoglutarate. Binding of 2-ketoglutarate (or its hydrate) to the holoenzyme elicits a change in the UV-visible spectrum consistent with the formation of cob(II)alamin on the enzyme. 2-ketoglutarate undergoes rapid exchange of tritium between the 5'-position of the coenzyme and C-4 of 2-ketoglutarate, consistent with the formation of a 2-ketoglutaryl radical analogous to that formed with glutamate. Under aerobic conditions this leads to the slow inactivation of the enzyme, presumably through reaction of free radical species with oxygen. Despite the formation of a substrate-like radical, no rearrangement of 2-ketoglutarate to 3-methyloxalacetate could be detected. The results indicate that formation of the C-4 radical of 2-ketoglutarate is a facile process but that it does not undergo further reactions, suggesting that this may be a useful substrate analog with which to investigate the mechanism of coenzyme homolysis. (+info)
Metabolic capacity for L-citrulline synthesis from ammonia in rat isolated colonocytes.
Ammonia is present at high concentration in the colon lumen and is considered a colon cancer suspect. Furthermore, ammonia usually eliminated by the liver in the ornithine cycle is considered highly toxic to cerebral function when present in excess in the blood plasma. Therefore, the metabolic pathways involved in ammonia metabolism in colonocytes were studied in the present study. Rat colonocytes were found equipped with low carbamoylphosphate synthase I activity, high ornithine carbamoyltransferase and arginase activities and low argininosuccinate synthase activity. High (10 and 50 mmol/l) NH4Cl concentrations but not low concentrations (1 and 5 mmol/l) were found able to increase respectively 3- and 10-fold the conversion of radioactive L-arginine to L-citrulline. In contrast, very low capacity for L-citrulline conversion to L-arginine is found in colonocytes. It is concluded that an incomplete ornithine cycle is operative in colonocytes which results in ammonia stimulated L-citrulline production. The contribution of this metabolic pathway in relation to ammonia detoxication by colonocytes is discussed. (+info)
Anaerobic oxidations of cysteate: degradation via L-cysteate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase in Paracoccus pantotrophus.
Anoxic, fresh-water enrichment cultures to oxidize different organosulfonates were set up with nitrate, ferric iron or sulfate as electron acceptors. Pure cultures were easily obtained with two naturally occurring sulfonates, cysteate (2-amino-3-sulfopropionate) and taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate), under nitrate-reducing conditions. These two sulfonates were also oxidized during reduction of iron(III), though isolation of pure cultures was not successful. One nitrate-reducing cysteate-oxidizing bacterium, strain NKNCYSA, was studied in detail. It was identified as Paracoccus pantotrophus. Eighteen sulfonates were tested, and the organism degraded cysteate, taurine, isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate), sulfoacetate or 3-aminopropanesulfonate with concomitant reduction of nitrate, presumably to molecular nitrogen. The carbon skeleton of these substrates was converted to cell material and, presumably, CO2. The amino group was released as ammonia and the sulfono moiety was recovered as sulfate. Cell-free extracts of P. pantotrophus NKNCYSA contained constitutive L-cysteate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.-) and glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52). Taurine:pyruvate aminotransferase, in contrast, was inducible. (+info)
Induction of gadd153 mRNA by nutrient deprivation is overcome by glutamine.
The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible (gadd) genes are co-ordinately activated by a variety of genotoxic agents and/or growth-cessation signals. The regulation of gadd153 mRNA was investigated in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) cultured in a nutrient- and serum-deprived medium. The addition of glutamine alone to LLC-PK1 cells cultured in Earl's balanced salt solution (EBSS) is sufficient to suppress gadd153 mRNA expression, and the removal of only glutamine from Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) is also sufficient to induce gadd153 mRNA expression. Consistent with these findings, the inhibition of glutamine utilization with acivicin and 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON) in cells grown in a glutamine-containing medium effectively induces gadd153 expression. Glutamine can be used as an energy source in cultured mammalian cells. However, it is unlikely that deficits in cellular energy stores (ATP) are coupled to gadd153 mRNA expression, because concentrations of ATP, UTP and GTP are all elevated in EBSS-exposed cells, and the addition of alpha-oxoglutarate to cells grown in EBSS has no effect on gadd153 mRNA expression. In contrast, concentrations of CTP decline substantially in EBSS and glutamine-deprived DMEM-cultured cells. Glutamine also serves as a precursor for the synthesis of protein and DNA. The addition of glutamine to cells grown in EBSS partly restores CTP concentrations. The addition of pyrimidine ribonucleosides (cytidine and uridine) to LLC-PK1 cells also restores CTP concentrations, in a manner commensurate with their relative abilities to overcome gadd153 expression. Finally, glutamine does not completely suppress DNA damage-induced gadd153 expression, suggesting that multiple signalling pathways lead to the expression of gadd153 mRNA under conditions of nutrient deprivation and DNA damage. (+info)