(1/299) Zernike representation of corneal topography height data after nonmechanical penetrating keratoplasty.
PURPOSE: To demonstrate a mathematical method for decomposition of discrete corneal topography height data into a set of Zernike polynomials and to demonstrate the clinical applicability of these computations in the postkeratoplasty cornea. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with either Fuchs' dystrophy (n = 20) or keratoconus (n = 30) were seen at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year (before suture removal) and again after suture removal following nonmechanical trephination with the excimer laser. Patients were assessed using regular keratometry, corneal topography (TMS-1, simulated keratometry [SimK]), subjective refraction, and best-corrected visual acuity (VA) at each interval. A set of Zernike coefficients with radial degree 8 was calculated to fit two model surfaces: a complete representation (TOTAL) and a representation with parabolic terms only to define an approximate spherocylindrical surface (PARABOLIC). The root mean square error (RMS) was calculated comparing the corneal raw height data with TOTAL (TOTALRMS) and PARABOLIC (PARABOLICRMS). The cylinder of subjective refraction was correlated with the keratometric readings, the SimK, and the respective Zernike parameter. Visual acuity was correlated with the tilt components of the Zernike expansion. RESULTS: The measured corneal surface could be approximated by the composed surface 1 with TOTALRMS < or = 1.93 microm and by surface 2 with PARABOLICRMS < or = 3.66 microm. Mean keratometric reading after suture removal was 2.8+/-0.6 D. At all follow-up examinations, the SimK yielded higher values, whereas the keratometric reading and the refractive cylinder yielded lower values than the respective Zernike parameter. The correlation of the Zernike representation and the refractive cylinder (P = 0.02 at 3 months, P = 0.05 at 6 months and at 1 year, and P = 0.01 after suture removal) was much better than the correlation of the SimK and refractive cylinder (P = 0.3 at 3 months, P = 0.4 at 6 months, P = 0.2 at 1 year, and P = 0.1 after suture removal). Visual acuity increased from 0.23+/-0.10 at the 3-month evaluation to 0.54+/-0.19 after suture removal. After suture removal, there was a statistically significant inverse correlation between VA and tilt (P = 0.02 in patients with keratoconus and P = 0.05 in those with Fuchs' dystrophy). CONCLUSIONS: Zernike representation of corneal topography height data renders a reconstruction of clinically relevant corneal topography parameters with a marked reduction of redundance and a small error. Correlation of amount/axis of refractive cylinder with respective Zernike parameters is more accurate than with keratometry or respective SimK values of corneal topography analysis. (+info)
(2/299) Traumatic wound rupture after penetrating keratoplasty in Africa.
AIM: To investigate risk factors, visual outcome, and graft survival for traumatic wound rupture after penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 336 patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty from 1988 to 1995. RESULTS: 19 patients (5.7%) suffered traumatic postoperative wound rupture requiring surgical repair. They were younger (mean age 16.6 years, 95% CI 13.2-20.6) and more frequently keratoconic (p = 0.01) than other patients (mean age 28.9 years, 95% CI 26.-31.0). Mean postoperative follow up was 37.7 (SD 22.9) months and 24.5 (18.9) months for the rupture and non-rupture patients. Mean interval between keratoplasty and rupture was 18 (21) weeks. The lens was damaged and removed in 37% of ruptured eyes. For keratoconics, the probability of graft survival at 5 years was lower (p = 0.03) in the ruptured eyes (75%) than in the non-ruptured eyes (90%). Endothelial failure was a more common (p <0.05) cause of graft opacification in ruptured grafts than in intact grafts. Of the ruptured eyes, 53% achieved a final corrected acuity of at least 6/18 and 63% achieved at least 6/60 compared with 48% and 71% of the intact eyes respectively (both p >0.1). The proportion of keratoconic eyes which achieved at least 6/60 was lower (p = 0.02) in the ruptured eyes (67%) than the non-ruptured eyes (87%). Eyes with wound ruptures of 5 clock hours or greater were less likely (p <0.05) to achieve an acuity of 6/18 and were more likely (p <0.05) to have an associated lens injury. CONCLUSIONS: Graft rupture is relatively common in African practice, particularly in young keratoconics. Visual outcome and graft survival are not significantly worse than for other grafted eyes, but are significantly worse than for other grafted keratoconic eyes. (+info)
(3/299) A new surgical technique for deep stromal, anterior lamellar keratoplasty.
AIMS: To describe a new surgical technique for deep stromal anterior lamellar keratoplasty. METHODS: In eye bank eyes and sighted human eyes, aqueous was exchanged by air, to visualise the posterior corneal surface--that is, the "air to endothelium" interface. Through a 5.0 mm scleral incision, a deep stromal pocket was created across the cornea, using the air to endothelium interface as a reference plane for dissection depth. The pocket was filled with viscoelastic, and an anterior corneal lamella was excised. A full thickness donor button was sutured into the recipient bed after stripping its Descemet's membrane. RESULTS: In 25 consecutive human eye bank eyes, a 12% microperforation rate was found. Corneal dissection depth averaged 95.4% (SD 2.7%). Six patient eyes had uneventful surgeries; in a seventh eye, perforation of the lamellar bed occurred. All transplants cleared. Central pachymetry ranged from 0.62 to 0.73 mm. CONCLUSION: With this technique a deep stromal anterior lamellar keratoplasty can be performed with the donor to recipient interface just anterior to the posterior corneal surface. The technique has the advantage that the dissection can be completed in the event of inadvertent microperforation, or that the procedure can be aborted to perform a planned penetrating keratoplasty. (+info)
(4/299) Evidence of long-term survival of donor-derived cells after limbal allograft transplantation.
PURPOSE: Severe destruction of the corneal limbus causes conjunctival invasion and subsequent visual loss. Limbal allograft transplantation (LAT) was recently proposed for the treatment of these disorders. However, whether the method functions as a stem cell transplantation of the corneal epithelium remains unclear. This study provided evidence that donor-derived corneal epithelial cells survive long after LAT. METHODS: Epithelial cells on the paracentral cornea in patients who have undergone LAT were subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. X and Y chromosomes were detected using sex chromosome-specific probes in the FISH analysis, and HLA-DPBI antigens were examined in the RFLP analysis. Eyes receiving conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) served as controls. RESULTS: Donor-derived epithelial cells were detected in three of five eyes (60.0%) in the FISH analysis and in seven of nine eyes (77.8%) in the RFLP analysis. Among these eyes, one and three eyes in the FISH and RFLP analysis, respectively, had both donor- and recipient-derived cells. In control PKP eyes, none of the eyes in the FISH analysis and one of eight eyes (12.5%) in the RFLP analysis had donor-derived cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that donor-derived cells survive much longer after LAT than those after PKP, and that LAT may function as stem cell transplantation of the corneal epithelium. (+info)
(5/299) Proposed classification for topographic patterns seen after penetrating keratoplasty.
AIMS: To create a clinically useful classification for post-keratoplasty corneas based on corneal topography. METHODS: A total of 360 topographic maps obtained with the TMS-1, from 95 eyes that had undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), were reviewed independently by two examiners in a masked fashion, and were categorised according to a proposed classification scheme. RESULTS: A high interobserver agreement (88% in the first categorisation) was achieved. At 12 months post-PKP, a regular astigmatic pattern was observed in 20/85 cases (24%). This was subclassified as oval in three cases (4%), oblate symmetric bow tie in six cases (7%), prolate asymmetric bow tie in six cases (7%), and oblate asymmetric bow tie in five cases (6%). An irregular astigmatic pattern was observed in 61/85 cases (72%), subclassified as prolate irregular in five cases (6%), oblate irregular in four cases (5%), mixed in seven cases (8%), steep/flat in 11 cases (13%), localised steepness in 16 cases (19%), and triple pattern in three cases (4%). Regular astigmatic patterns were associated with significantly higher astigmatism measurements. The surface asymmetry index was significantly lower in the regular astigmatic patterns. CONCLUSIONS: In post-PKP corneas, the prevalence of irregular astigmatism is about double that of regular astigmatism, with a trend for increase of the irregular patterns over time. (+info)
(6/299) The triple procedure: in the bag placement versus ciliary sulcus placement of the intraocular lens.
AIMS: To evaluate the influence of intraocular lens (IOL) placement on triple procedure clinical results and to investigate whether it is appropriate to use phacoemulsification in patients with large lens nucleus. METHODS: 40 consecutive penetrating keratoplasties combined with cataract extraction performed in a single institution were studied. Whenever possible a capsulorhexis was performed and the IOL was placed into the capsular bag. Phacoemulsification was used when the nucleus was too large to pass through the capsulorhexis. RESULTS: Out of 25 patients with an intact capsulorhexis phacoemulsification was used in 13 (52.0%) whereas the entire nucleus passed through the capsulorhexis in the remaining 12 patients (48%). The average 12 month visual acuity was 0.46 (SD 0.21) in patients with in the bag IOL (n = 23) and 0.29 (0.08) in patients with ciliary sulcus IOL (n = 13) (p = 0.04). Elevated intraocular pressure occurred in 26.1% (6/23) of patients with in the bag IOL and 61.5% (8/13) of patients with ciliary sulcus IOL (p = 0.08). The average postoperative graft thickness at 18 months was 552 (27) microns in the former group and 650 (29) microns in the latter group (p = 0.04). No significant difference in graft survival, postoperative endothelial cell density, astigmatism, and videokeratoscopic measurements was found between both groups. CONCLUSION: In the bag placement of the intraocular lens during the triple procedure results in better outcome of transplantation than ciliary sulcus placement of the IOL. Phacoemulsification allows removal of large nuclei through a 5 mm capsulorhexis without performing relaxing incisions out towards the periphery of the capsule. (+info)
(7/299) "Orientation teeth" in non-mechanical laser corneal trephination for penetrating keratoplasty: 2.94 microm Er:YAG v 193 nm ArF excimer laser.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: "Orientation teeth" at the donor trephination margin and correspondent "notches" at the host margin facilitate graft orientation and avoid "horizontal torsion" induced by asymmetric suture placement. In this study the quality and reproducibility of these structures created by non-mechanical laser corneal trephination were compared using two laser emissions. METHODS: The procedure was performed in 20 enucleated pigs' eyes using open metal masks with eight "orientation teeth/notches" (0.3 x 0.15 mm, base x height), an automated globe rotation device, and either a 193 nm ArF excimer laser or a Q switched 2.94 microm Er:YAG laser. "Teeth/notches" were analysed by planimetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: Mean size was 0.30 (0.027) x 0. 16 (0.017) mm for "teeth" and 0.30 (0.035) x 0.15 (0.021) mm for "notches" (excimer), and 0.31 (0.022) x 0.16 (0.015) mm and 0.30 (0.031) x 0.14 (0.021) mm respectively (Er:YAG). Overall, variability of notches was higher than that of teeth. By SEM, comparable cut regularity and sustained ablation profile were observed with both lasers. However, the corneal surface at the cut edge appeared slightly elevated (=35 microm) in the Er:YAG group. CONCLUSION: Orientation teeth/notches resembling those obtained with the excimer laser can be created using the Q switched Er:YAG laser, with potential advantages of lower costs, convenient equipment size, and solid state safety. (+info)
(8/299) LASIK for post penetrating keratoplasty astigmatism and myopia.
AIMS: To report the results of a series of patients who were treated with LASIK to correct post penetrating keratoplasty ametropia. METHODS: 26 eyes of 24 patients underwent LASIK to correct astigmatism and myopia after corneal transplantation; 14 eyes also received arcuate cuts in the stromal bed at the time of surgery. The mean preoperative spherical equivalent was -5.20D and the mean preoperative astigmatism was 8.67D. RESULTS: The results of 25 eyes are reported. The mean 1 month values for spherical equivalent and astigmatism were -0.24D and 2.48D respectively. 18 eyes have been followed up for 6 months or more. The final follow up results for these eyes are -1.91D and 2.92D for spherical equivalent and astigmatism. The patients undergoing arcuate cuts were less myopic but had greater astigmatism than those not. The patients receiving arcuate cuts had a greater target induced astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism, and astigmatism correction index than those eyes that did not. One eye suffered a surgical complication. No eyes lost more than one line of BSCVA and all eyes gained between 0 and 6 lines UCVA. CONCLUSIONS: LASIK after penetrating keratoplasty is a relatively safe and effective procedure. It reduces both the spherical error and the cylindrical component of the ametropia. Correction of high astigmatism may be augmented by performing arcuate cuts in the stromal bed. (+info)