(1/91) Development of keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas in transgenic rabbits with targeted expression of EJras oncogene in epidermis.
Activated ras genes have been frequently identified in both benign and malignant human tumors, including keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we developed two lines of transgenic rabbits in which the expression of EJras has been specifically targeted to the rabbit epidermal keratinocytes, using the upstream regulatory region of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. All of the F1 transgenic progenies developed multiple keratoacanthomas at about 3 days after birth. The rabbits developed an average of 20 tumors, which usually reached the size of approximately 1 cm in diameter and then spontaneously regressed in about 2 months, similar to keratoacanthoma regression in humans. In addition, up to 18% of the rabbits then developed squamous cell carcinoma at about 5 months of age. The expression of EJras was detectable in all of the keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas. These results strongly support the involvement of the ras oncogene in both the initiation and regression of keratoacanthoma, and in the development of squamous cell carcinomas. These novel transgenic rabbits, with their consistent tumorigenic phenotype at an early age, high similarity to the human lesions, and easy accessibility for examination, manipulation, biopsy, and treatment, should provide a unique model system for studying ras activation-related tumor initiation, regression, and progression, and for evaluating antitumor therapies. (+info)
(2/91) Keratoacanthomas have an immunosuppressive cytokine environment of increased IL-10 and decreased GM-CSF compared to squamous cell carcinomas.
To investigate the relationship between keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cytokine mRNA in 12 KA and eight SCC were compared. Normal skin was also studied. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to quantitate mRNA in each sample utilizing DNA standards. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as an internal control, and CD3delta as an indication of the T-cell infiltrate. KAs showed a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-10, and a decrease in granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA compared to SCCs. CD3delta mRNA was also increased in the KAs. There was no difference between KAs and SCCs in expression of lymphotoxin-alpha, IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-13, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), or the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). These results indicate that KAs spontaneously resolve in an immunosuppressive environment. KAs grow rapidly over a period of weeks and then involute. It is possible that a suppressed immune response enables unimpeded growth and that the KA cells rapidly undergo the finite number of cell divisions of which they are capable, and then die without reaching immortality. (+info)
(3/91) Dose-dependent mutation profile in the c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene of skin tumors in mice initiated with benzo[a]pyrene.
Female CD-1 mice were treated topically with a low (25-50 nmol) or high (800 nmol) dose of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) or acetone vehicle, followed by 5 nmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) twice a week for 26 weeks. Selective UV radiation fractionation followed by PCR methods were used to analyze histologically defined subsets of cells (approximately 100-200 cells) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and H&E stained microscope sections. DNA samples from normal-appearing, hyperplastic or tumor regions from the skin of animals from each treatment group were isolated and amplified by PCR with c-Ha-ras-specific primers. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses were performed on both exon 1 and 2 products from each sample. DNA extracted from each aberrant band of SSCP analyses was amplified by PCR for further sequence analysis. The data indicate that c-Ha-ras mutations can be detected in normal-looking and hyperplastic epidermal cells as well as in tumor cells obtained from mice initiated with BP and promoted with TPA. The frequencies of c-Ha-ras mutations for normal-looking, hyperplastic and tumor samples were 3/20 (15%), 8/17 (47%) and 58/68 (85%), respectively, for the low dose group and 8/18 (44%), 10/20 (50%) and 64/86 (74%), respectively, for the high dose group. These observations indicate that there were no dose dependencies in the mutation frequencies for normal-looking, hyperplastic and tumor samples. For combined high dose and low dose samples, differences in mutation frequencies of the c-Ha-ras gene between the normal-looking, hyperplastic and tumor samples were highly significant (P < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). All mutations detected were located at codons 12, 13 and 61 of the c-Ha-ras gene. With the numbers in parentheses indicating the nucleotide position in the coding sequence of the c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene, the distributions of mutations for G-->A (35), G-->T (35), G-->C (37), G-->T (38), C-->A (181), A-->T (182) and A-->G (182) in the low dose tumors were 5, 2, 11, 74, 0, 7 and 2%, respectively, and the distribution of mutations in tumors from animals treated with a high dose of BP were 3, 7, 13, 61, 15, 1 and 0%, respectively. Differences in the global mutation spectra (site and kind of all mutations) for the c-Ha-ras gene between the high and low dose group tumors were statistically significant (P < 0.004, Fisher's exact test) and the major difference between these two groups was C-->A (181) base substitutions. In summary, our data indicate that: (i) 79% of the BP/TPA skin tumors in CD-1 mice had c-Ha-ras mutations for the combined data for high dose and low dose tumors; (ii) the major mutations detected in BP/TPA skin tumors were G-->T transversions; (iii) the global mutation profile in the c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene in skin tumors obtained after initiation with a low dose of BP was different from that obtained after initiation with a high dose of BP. (+info)
(4/91) Carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-, 7,8-, and 9,10-oxides on mouse skin.
Benzo[a]pyrene and three arene oxides of benzo[a]pyrene (benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-, 7,8-, and 9,10-oxides) have been tested for carcinogenicity in mice by topical application of each compound (0.1 or 0.4 mumol) once every 2 weeks for 60 weeks. At the high dose, benzo[a]pyrene and the 7,8-oxide were highly carcinogenic, whereas the 4,5-oxide (K-region oxide) was weakly active and the 9,10-oxide was inactive. At the low dose, only benzo[a]pyrene was highly carcinogenic. The carcinogenic activities of the three arene oxides of benzo[a]pyrene were not correlated with their stabilities or mutagenic activities. (+info)
(5/91) Benzo[a]pyrene carcinogenicity is lost in mice lacking the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
The contribution of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in induction of a battery of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes has been studied extensively. However, no direct proof has been obtained that it plays a role in modulating carcinogenesis. To address the question of whether AhR is required for tumor induction, we have investigated the response of AhR-deficient mice to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a widely distributed environmental carcinogen. B[a]P treatment induced expression of the cytochrome P450 gene Cyp1a1 in the skin and liver of AhR-positive mice bearing +/+ and +/- genotypes and did not induce expression of the cytochrome P450 gene Cyp1a1 in AhR-null mice in either skin or liver. In contrast, Cyp1a2 gene expression was positive in liver irrespective of the presence or absence of the AhR gene, or B[a]P treatment, although its inducibility was lost in the AhR(-/-) mouse. All AhR-positive male mice of both +/+ and +/- genotypes that received subcutaneous injection of B[a]P (2 mg) on the first and the eighth days had developed subcutaneous tumors at the site of injection at the end of the 18-week experiment. In contrast, no tumors were apparent in any of the AhR-deficient mice. Likewise, topical application of B[a]P (200 microg) at weekly intervals to the skin of female mice for 25 weeks produced skin tumors only in the AhR-positive mice. Thus the carcinogenic action of B[a]P may be determined primarily by AhR, a transcriptional regulator of the gene for CYP1A1. The results of the present study provide direct evidence that AhR is involved in carcinogenesis. (+info)
(6/91) Comparison of oncostatin M expression in keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncostatin M (OSM) is a 28-kDa glycoprotein, produced by stimulated macrophages and T lymphocytes, that inhibits the proliferation and induces differentiation of a number of different cell lines derived from solid tumors. To determine whether keratoacanthoma (KA) is unique or a variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we compared the immunohistochemical expression of OSM in the tumor cells and peri- and intratumoral macrophages of 21 mature KAs, 7 regressing KAs, and 27 SCCs. An inverse correlation was identified between OSM tumor labeling and the density of OSM-labeled tumor-associated macrophages for KAs (r = -.4; P = .09). OSM tumor expression was significantly more frequent and more intense in KAs than in SCCs (95% versus 63%; P < .01). In contrast, the density of OSM-labeled macrophages was significantly higher in SCCs compared with mature KAs (7/3 high power fields versus 4/3 high power fields; P = .02). These OSM-positive macrophages were predominantly located at the advancing, infiltrative margins of both neoplasms. Regressing KAs demonstrated a decreased level of OSM tumor expression compared with mature KAs (53% versus 95%; P = .001), but there was no difference in density of OSM-labeled macrophages. Both the above differences and the overlapping patterns of OSM expression suggest that KAs are a variant of SCC where OSM, possibly as an autocrine factor, may mediate KA's overwhelming but not absolute tendency to involute. (+info)
(7/91) Mucous metaplasia and gap junctions in the vitamin A acid-treated skin tumor, keratoacanthoma.
Desmosomes are the usual cell junctions found in normal rabbit epithelium as well as in the untreated keratoacanthoma. This study reports the finding of a second cell junction, the gap junction, when epithelium, normal or tumorous, is subjected to topical applications of vitamin A acid. The gap junction forms early in mucous metaplasia (after 2 days of application of vitamin A acid) and appears before the gross appearance of mucus. The presence of the gap junction occurs when there is an increase in the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi cisternae and vesicles. It is possible that the early appearance of the gap junction facilitates and mediates the mucous metaplasia. This suggestion is strengthened by the fact that the gap junction, once present in the mucus-producing tumor, is sparse when the tumor reverts back to the dry, keratotic condition upon cessation of vitamin A acid applications. (+info)
(8/91) Differences between squamous cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma in angiotensin type-1 receptor expression.
Angiotensin II receptors are the specific receptors of angiotensin II of the renin-angiotensin system. The existence and role of the receptors in the skin have not been determined. We immunohistochemically studied the expression of angiotensin receptors in the human skin. The results demonstrated the expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1) in the normal human suprabasal epidermis. The expression pattern suggests the role of AT1 in association with differentiation. In addition, we studied the expression of AT1 in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, SCC of the lip, and keratoacanthoma (KA). Our experiments showed that high, intermediate, and low levels of AT1 were observed in 37 (74.0%), 7 (14.0%), and 2 (4.0%) of 50 cases of SCC of the skin, respectively, and the negative periphery pattern was observed in 17 (77.3%) of 22 cases of KA. These observations suggest that the immunohistochemical study of AT1 is useful to distinguish SCC from KA. Studying the role and distribution of AT1 may help in understanding the pathophysiology of the skin. (+info)