Physical interaction of the bHLH LYL1 protein and NF-kappaB1 p105.
The LYL1 gene was first identified upon the molecular characterization of the t(7;9)(q35;p13) translocation associated with some human T-cell acute leukemias (T-ALLs). In adult tissues, LYL1 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells with the notable exclusion of the T cell lineage. LYL1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein highly related to TAL-1, whose activation is also associated with a high proportion of human T-ALLs. A yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that specifically interact with LYL1 and might mediate its activities. We found that p105, the precursor of NF-kappaB1 p50, was the major LYL1-interacting protein in this system. The association between LYL1 and p105 was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo in mammalian cells. Biochemical studies indicated that the interaction was mediated by the bHLH motif of LYL1 and the ankyrin-like motifs of p105. Ectopic expression of LYL1 in a human T cell line caused a significant decrease in NF-kappaB-dependent transcription, associated with a reduced level of NF-kappaB1 proteins. (+info)
Use of RhD fusion protein expressed on K562 cell surface in the study of molecular basis for D antigenic epitopes.
The human D antigens, one of the most clinically important blood groups, are presented by RhD protein with a putative 12 transmembrane topology. To understand the molecular basis for the complex antigenic profile of RhD protein, we expressed a series of RhD fusion proteins using different portions of Duffy protein as a tag in erythroleukemic K562 cells. Because the reactivity of monoclonal anti-RhD antibody, LOR15C9, depends mainly on the sequence coded by exon 7 of RhD, we altered DNA sequence corresponding to the amino acid residues 323-331(A) and 350-354(B) in the exon 7. The mutation in region B resulted in a severe reduction in LOR15C9 binding by flow cytometry analysis, suggesting that region B may play an important role in constituting antigen epitopes recognized by LOR15C9. On the other hand, a slight decrease in the antibody binding was observed for the region A mutant, suggesting that the intracellularly located region A may elicit a long distance effect on the formation of exofacial antigen epitopes. In addition, using various monoclonal antibodies against RhD, we compared the antigenic profile of expressed RhD fusion protein with that of endogenous RhD in K562 cells as well as in erythrocytes. (+info)
T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay.
Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney. (+info)
Arsenic targets tubulins to induce apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells.
Arsenic exhibits a differential toxicity to cancer cells. At a high concentration (>5 microM), As2O3 causes acute necrosis in various cell lines. At a lower concentration (0.5-5 microm), it induces myeloid cell maturation and an arrest in metaphase, leading to apoptosis. As2O3-treated cells have features found with both tubulin-assembling enhancers (Taxol) and inhibitors (colchicine). Prior treatment of monomeric tubulin with As2O3 markedly inhibits GTP-induced polymerization and microtubule formation in vitro but does not destabilize GTP-induced tubulin polymers. Cross-inhibition experiments indicate that As2O3 is a noncompetitive inhibitor of GTP binding to tubulin. These observations correlate with the three-dimensional structure of beta-tubulin and suggest that the cross-linking of two vicinal cysteine residues (Cys-12 and Cys-213) by trivalent arsenic inactivates the GTP binding site. Furthermore, exogenous GTP can prevent As2O3-induced mitotic arrest. (+info)
The Megakaryocyte/Platelet-specific enhancer of the alpha2beta1 integrin gene: two tandem AP1 sites and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade.
The alpha2beta1 integrin, a collagen receptor on platelets and megakaryocytes, is required for normal platelet function. Transcriptional regulation of the alpha2 integrin gene in cells undergoing megakaryocytic differentiation requires a core promoter between bp -30 and -92, a silencer between bp -92 and -351, and megakaryocytic enhancers in the distal 5' flank. We have now identified a 229-bp region of the distal 5' flank of the alpha2 integrin gene required for high-level enhancer activity in cells with megakaryocytic features. Two tandem AP1 binding sites with dyad symmetry are required for enhancer activity and for DNA-protein complex formation with members of the c-fos/c-jun family. The requirement for AP1 activation suggested a role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in regulating alpha2 integrin gene expression. Inhibition of the MAP kinase cascade with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MAPK kinase 1, prevented the expression of the alpha2 integrin subunit in cells induced to become megakaryocytic. We provide a model of megakaryocytic differentiation in which expression of the alpha2 integrin gene requires signaling via the MAP kinase pathway to activate two tandem AP1 binding sites in the alpha2 integrin enhancer. (+info)
Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an EGF family member expressed by numerous cell types that binds to EGF receptor 1 (HER-1) or 4 (HER-4) inducing mitogenic and/or chemotactic activities. Membrane-bound HB-EGF retains growth activity and adhesion capabilities and the unique property of being the receptor for diphtheria toxin (DT). The interest in studying HB-EGF in acute leukemia stems from these mitogenic, chemotactic, and receptor functions. We analyzed the expression of HB-EGF in L428, Raji, Jurkat, Karpas 299, L540, 2C8, HL-60, U937, THP-1, ML-3, and K562 cell lines and in primary blasts from 12 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot and by the evaluation of sensitivity to DT. The release of functional HB-EGF was assessed by evaluation of its proliferative effects on the HB-EGF-sensitive Balb/c 3T3 cell line. HB-EGF was expressed by all myeloid and T, but not B (L428, Raji), lymphoid cell lines tested, as well as by the majority (8 of 12) of ex vivo AML blasts. Cell lines (except for the K562 cell line) and AML blasts expressing HB-EGF mRNA underwent apoptotic death following exposure to DT, thus demonstrating the presence of the HB-EGF molecule on their membrane. Leukemic cells also released a fully functional HB-EGF molecule that was mitogenic for the Balb/c 3T3 cell line. Factors relevant to the biology of leukemic growth, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3, and especially all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), upregulated HB-EGF mRNA in HL-60 or ML-3 cells. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced HB-EGF mRNA and acquisition of sensitivity to DT in one previously HB-EGF-negative leukemia case. Moreover, the U937 and Karpas 299 cell lines expressed HER-4 mRNA. This work shows that HB-EGF is a growth factor produced by primary leukemic cells and regulated by ATRA, 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D3, and GM-CSF. (+info)
The identification of ferritin in the nucleus of K562 cells, and investigation of a possible role in the transcriptional regulation of adult beta-globin gene expression.
We studied the subcellular distribution of ferritin in K562 cells by immunofluorescence techniques and have made a reappraisal of a direct binding interaction between ferritin and the proximal promoter region of the human beta-globin gene, as previously mentioned in the literature. Confocal microscopy indicates that ferritin, the iron-storage protein, is present in the nucleus of K562 cells, in addition to its expected cytoplasmic localisation. The stain distribution suggests that it is not directly associated with the nuclear matrix. Using a gel mobility shift assay, a protein that cross-reacts with monoclonal ferritin antibodies competitively binds to a double-stranded oligonucleotide spanning the region situated 150 base pairs upstream from the beta-globin transcription start site. Despite this antibody cross-reactivity, the protein is unlike cytosolic ferritin as it appears to be highly sensitive to both temperature and freeze-thaw cycles, and UV-crosslinking experiments indicate that the molecular mass of the protein factor lies between 90 and 100 kDa. In conclusion, while the intranuclear location of ferritin is described in the present study, ferritin is not in direct contact with the beta-globin promoter region. (+info)
Conformational changes in tertiary structure near the ligand binding site of an integrin I domain.
For efficient ligand binding, integrins must be activated. Specifically, a conformational change has been proposed in a ligand binding domain present within some integrins, the inserted (I) domain [Lee, J., Bankston, L., Arnaout, M. & Liddington, R. C. (1995) Structure (London) 3, 1333-1340]. This proposal remains controversial, however, despite extensive crystal structure studies on the I domain [Lee, J., Bankston, L., Arnaout, M. & Liddington, R. C. (1995) Structure (London) 3, 1333-1340; Liddington, R. & Bankston, L. (1998) Structure (London) 6, 937-938; Qu, A. & Leahy, D. J. (1996) Structure (London) 4, 931-942; and Baldwin, E. T., Sarver, R. W., Bryant, G. L., Jr., Curry, K. A., Fairbanks, M. B., Finzel, B. C. , Garlick, R. L., Heinrikson, R. L., Horton, N. C. & Kelly, L. L. (1998) Structure (London) 6, 923-935]. By defining the residues present in the epitope of a mAb against the human Mac-1 integrin (alphaMbeta2, CD11b/CD18) that binds only the active receptor, we provide biochemical evidence that the I domain itself undergoes a conformational change with activation. This mAb, CBRM1/5, binds the I domain very close to the ligand binding site in a region that is widely exposed regardless of activation as judged by reactivity with other antibodies. The conformation of the epitope differs in two crystal forms of the I domain, previously suggested to represent active and inactive receptor. Our data suggests that conformational differences in the I domain are physiologically relevant and not merely a consequence of different crystal lattice interactions. We also demonstrate that the transition between the two conformational states depends on species-specific residues at the bottom of the I domain, which are proposed to be in an interface with another integrin domain, and that this transition correlates with functional activity. (+info)